All private house owners would like to have an autonomous heating system with the lowest investment. It remains to decide which is better - a gas or electric boiler, if both these sources of energy are available.
In fact, this task is not very simple, since in addition to the variety of prices for equipment there are also many nuances of connection, registration of documents and energy tariffs. If you approach this question seriously, you can get a substantiated answer and make the right choice in the end.
Let's collectively understand which variant of the unit and the heating arranged on its basis will be more practical. In the article presented by us we give an assessment of the cost of installation work and a comparison of economic indicators. The information presented by us will help to make the right choice.
Content of the article:
- Features of heating from electricity
- Ranges and limits of consumption
- Purchase and installation of an electric boiler
- Specialities of heating with gas
- How to connect to the main system
- Features of installation equipment
- Comparing energy tariffs
- Comparing the final cost
- Conclusions and a useful video on the topic
Peculiarities of heating from electricity
For each house or cottage, you must determine the types of work needed, Make an individual estimate and get the amount you will eventually have to pay for the heating system. It is also necessary to calculate the amount of electricity or gas needed for the cold season, and knowing their cost, it is easy to calculate the annual costs.
Electric boilers that are used for heating a country house, refer to the consumers with high power. It follows that in most cases the costs will have to be incurred not only for the purchase and installation of the equipment but also for the modification of the electricity supply system.
Consumption standards and limits
To determine the necessary capacity of an electric or gas boiler, it is necessary to calculate the heat loss of the house.
If the heat loss of the house is calculated in detail, effective measures can be taken to insulate it. It helps to save on heating costs
The heat losses have two values:
- the average value which is calculated on the basis of the average daily temperatures during the whole heating period (Qsr). It is used to calculate the amount of energy (gas, electricity, wood, fuel oil, etc.) consumed per year.
- Maximum, which is determined on the basis of the temperature of the coldest five days (Qmax). It is used to calculate the minimum allowable boiler output.
During peak cold weather the boiler can operate continuously, and during temperatures close to the norm, the heating medium circulating in the heating circuit is periodically heated.
The amount of heat loss can be calculated in several ways:
- Calculate it yourself using simplified methods or special calculators;
- Calculate it yourself using more exact calculations using the thermal resistance parameter of the materials of which the house is built;
- ordering calculations by outside companies.
Any boiler must be chosen according to the parameter of maximum thermal capacity (Pmax) taking into account the following condition:
Pmax ≥ Qmax / (K / 100), where
K the equipment efficiency.
The efficiency of modern electric heaters equals or exceeds 98%, while gas heaters are usually in the 92% to 96% range.
Double circuit boilers are equipped with a hot water circuit. This leads to additional energy consumption, which must also be taken into account
Calculating the required maximum boiler capacity, it is necessary to determine the possibility of its connection to the network. For small buildings it is sometimes possible to meet the standard 15 kW, which the electricity supply company is obliged to provide to an individual consumer
In accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 1178 of 29.12.2001 (in the current edition) the connection price in this case is only 550 rubles
If the necessary power exceeds 15 kW or the networks are located more than 500 meters (in cities - 300 meters) from the object, the price for connection will be higher. It may depend on many factors, so it is easier to find it out from the electricity supply company by sending a corresponding request.
In addition, the applicant may be given a reasoned refusal to be connected if there is a technical problem, such as an overloading of the substation.
Purchase and installation of an electric boiler
One of the clear advantages of an electric boiler over its gas counterpart is the ease of installation and the possibility to install it almost anywhere in the house.
Electric boilers require no separate room with normal ventilation and no chimney to be connected. They are also easy to integrate into the interior
If you compare whether it is more profitable to have an electric boiler or a gas boiler, you should not consider those works that are the same in price with either type of equipment. For example, the installation of a water circuit around the perimeter of the house does not depend on the type of energy supplied.
It is therefore necessary to consider the following financial costs when installing an electric boiler:
- connection to the heating circuit (piping);
- provision of electricity supply;
- placement and connection of a heat accumulator.
Heat accumulator is relevant when using a double-zone tariff. It allows to accumulate heat at night, when electricity costs are much lower.
Specialities of gas heating
The procedure of getting a permit for connecting to the mains, installing the gas equipment and starting it is more complicated than for boilers working on electricity. That is why it is rather difficult to calculate the costs yourself and you have to contact organizations responsible for gas delivery and installation.
How to connect to the mains
All work carried out on the property outside private property is carried out by the gas supply organization.
Gas can be connected to the house by underground or by air. The second option is less attractive, as it imposes restrictions, for example, on the access route of private cars to the site
The first step is to gather a package of documents and obtain the technical conditions with the calculation of connection fees.
Usually, a private person is classified as a Category 1 applicant who meets the following conditions:
- gas flow rate not more than 20 m3 / hour;
- operating network pressure 0. 3 MPa;
- distance in a straight line to the network of 200 m.
These parameters are specified in clause 2 of the RF Government Decree № 1314 of 30.12.2013 in the current edition of 21.02.2019. R and depends on regional tariff rates.
However, the presence of a fragment of the gas network near a land plot does not mean that it is possible to connect to it, since it is possible that the entire capacity of this branch has already been selected. If the pipes have to be pulled from a distance or additional gas distribution equipment has to be installed to lower the pressure, the cost of the work may increase considerably, up to several million rubles.
Also the presence of ravines, ponds, roads with asphalt pavement and other obstacles on the way to the house can increase the cost of technological connection if additional work is needed to overcome them.
Another disadvantage of using gas is the many documents that must be provided to the gas supply company. This, too, can be counted in money
The next type of costs are the gas utilities on the plot. They must be paid by the owner. Here it is important to know that such work can be performed by any SRO-authorized company. Very often the cost of design and construction at the site of the client's gas supply organizations, with whom you will need to sign a contract for the construction of the system and the connection and maintenance, are overpriced.
While gas pipelines are considered high risk facilities, construction and installation work should be performed only after a series of studies also paid by the owner:
- preparing topoplan of the site;
- developing gas supply project;
- coordinating the project with services (architecture, electricians and gas companies);
- registering the project with gas companies.
Finishing the installation of the gas boiler is followed by a final procedure, which also requires a financial investment: commissioning of the whole system: checking the compliance of the installation with requirements, conclusion of the contract, finalization of documents and commissioning.
Properties of installation
The use of gas requires compliance with safety rules, which are more complex than similar requirements for electricity. Therefore, the location and installation of the gas boiler should be in accordance with SNiP 41-01-2001 (paras. 6.14-6.15). If you find discrepancies with this document, the heating system will not be accepted by an expert of the gas service.
To comply with the requirements for ventilation and exhaust of combustion products for floor gas boiler must allocate a separate room - boiler room. This also entails additional costs, especially if this room was not originally foreseen in the building design.
In addition to quality ventilation, the boiler room must meet fire safety requirements and provide easy access to all equipment
The total list of work required to install a gas boiler includes the following steps:
- placement of the boiler on the floor or wall;
- connection to the heating circuit (piping);
- assembly of the chimney for the gas boiler;
- first heating start-up and adjustment.
The combustion products exhaust system for gas heating equipment has its own specifics. The temperature at the beginning of the chimney will be much lower than that of furnaces or solid fuel boilers.
So it is necessary to follow all the rules on the diameter and slope of the pipes, their location outside the building and insulation. Otherwise the boiler control system can react to insufficient draught and block the boiler operation.
Comparing energy tariffs
The costs of energy carriers are regulated by Decree of the Federal Tariff Service № 20-e/2 from 06.08.2004. For households, as retail consumers, the unit price of electricity (kWh) and gas (m3) may differ depending on their production and delivery conditions to the end user.
The tariffs are published on websites of district, city and regional administrations. Also you can find them out by contacting the company that supplies the energy carrier or the housing and utilities department of the local administration.
In any case in the Russian Federation in terms of heat produced, main gas is significantly cheaper than electricity.
The unit price of heat when burning liquefied gas is almost equal to the cost of electricity. Given the cost of a gas holder, heating from a propane-butane mixture loses out to the other options
There are two other nuances to calculating the cost of electricity consumed:
- It is possible to reduce the rate by 30% for premises located in urban areas and equipped with fixed electric heating appliances. It is possible if some formal procedures have been followed even in the design phase of the building.
- Possibility of using a multi-tariff option. In order to stimulate consumption at night (when there is a drop in the total load on the grid), the supply organizations lower the cost per kWh.
When calculating to use the reduced rate at night it should be remembered that in this case a heat accumulator will be needed and the boiler capacity must be higher in order to provide heat for the whole night.
Comparing the final cost
The average cost of an electric boiler is not much lower than the gas boiler, and it can be higher using a heat accumulator. However, the price for electricity connection services is much less than for laying a gas pipe and obtaining all operating permits.
So the one-time costs for installation of equipment and utility connections are higher for gas than for electricity.
Few of the procedures for providing heating can be done yourself. But when calculating the final cost of all expenses it is still necessary to consider your own labor, as it too should be appreciated
Bearing in mind that in terms of heat allocated the price of gas is lower than that of electricity, the following situation is obtained:
- You can install heating from electricity. Pros - relatively low cost of equipment and work, ease of installation and variability in choosing the location of the boiler.
- You can opt for heating from mains gas. Plus it is an economical form of energy, which will pay back the initial costs after some time.
In order to calculate the period T (year), in which heating by gas is more profitable than by electricity, the following equation should be solved:
T = (Ng - Ne) / (Le - Lg), where:
- Ng is the one-time cost to install gas equipment and hookup utilities (p. );
- Ne - same for electricity (p.);
- Lg - annual costs of gas and equipment maintenance (p.
- Le - same for electricity (p./year).
Determine which boiler is better - electric or gas on the example of a real property. A house in Belgorod area, with an area of 100 m2. The calculated heat loss during the heating period is 3500 W, and during the coldest five days it is 7000 W.
The duration of the heating season can be taken from Table 1. SNiP 23-01-99 (column 11). Although users of autonomous heating can extend the season at their discretion
Calculate the one-time cost of installing an electric boiler:
- Thermotrust ST9 boiler (9 kW, 380 V): 11 t.r.;
- connection to the heating circuit: 12 t.r.;
- connection to electricity: 2 t.r.
The house is connected to the power of 15 kW. With the electric boiler only 6 kW remain for all other consumers.
Bearing in mind that the appliances (refrigerators, microwave, electric stove, electric kettle, washing machine, etc.
In this case we have to incur additional costs:
- payment for the connection of 30 kW at the standardized tariff rate of 157 R/kW 5 t.r.;
- payment for replacement of the fuse box and wiring around the house to the boiler location: 10 t.r.
Total: Ne = 40 t.r.
Calculate the one-time costs for the installation of a gas boiler:
- preparation of the boiler room according to the regulatory requirements 50 t.r.;
- Gas boiler ProTerm 12 KSO (12.5 kW): 19 t.r.;
- Installation of equipment and connection to the heating circuit: 25 t.r.;
- installation of the exhaust system of combustion products (1.5 t.r. per 1 p.m.) 12 t.p.;
- technological connection to the main line: 30 t.p.;
- project and mounting works at site: 90 t.p.
- closing documents (project agreement, registration) and call of specialist: 50 t.p. р;
- Startup of boiler and adjustment: 5 t.р.
Total: Ng = 281 t.р.
The term of technological connection to gas for the first category of applicants cannot exceed 1 year. Therefore it is necessary to start the whole procedure in advance
According to the heating season of 191 days, to compensate the heat loss it is necessary to spend 3500 × 24 × 191 = 16044000 W × h or:
- 16371 kW × h of electricity at an efficiency of 98% of the electric boiler;
- 1816 m3 natural gas at an efficiency of 95%.
With electric heating the annual heating costs are:
- self maintenance of boiler and small repairs: 2,000 rubles;
- payment for electricity at the tariff for rural areas 2.80 rubles per kW × h
Total: Le = 48 t.r.
When heating with gas the annual costs are:
- servicing of boiler by certified specialist and small repairs: 5 t.r. р;
- payment for gas at the rate of 6.28 р/m3: 11 т.р.
Total: Lr = 16 т.р.
For the house in question, the time in which gas heating will equal the cost of electric heating will be:
T = (281 - 40) / (48 - 16) = 7.5 years.
Conclusions and useful video on the subject
The cost of gas and electric heating in Kaliningrad region. Connection subsidies for certain categories of citizens:
Costs and terms of connecting gas to a country house:
In order to justify the choice of energy carrier, if it is possible to connect the heating both from gas and electricity, it is necessary to perform calculations of one-time and annual investments.
For this you should contact energy supply companies. On the basis of the received data it will already be possible to build a schedule of costs and objectively assess your financial capabilities.
And what variant of the boiler have you purchased for the arrangement of the house/apartment? Share your own arguments, which were decisive in your choice. Please leave your comments in the block below the test article, post pictures and ask questions about the topic of the article.