Life of humans, plants, and animals is in close relationship with the Sun. It emits radiation which has special properties. Ultraviolet is considered irreplaceable and vitally important. With its lack begins extremely undesirable processes in the body, and a strictly dosed amount can cure severe diseases.
That is why ultraviolet lamp for home use is necessary for many. In this article, let's talk about how to choose it correctly. For which we will consider the features of UV rays and their necessity for the human body.
Learn the varieties of UV lamps, their characteristics, give recommendations on choosing the appropriate variant for household use.
- Why do you need UV light?
- The main varieties of UV lamps
- View #1 - quartz emitting devices
- View #2 - bactericidal UV emitters
- View #3 - amalgam type devices
- What to look for when choosing a device?
- Type of household UV lamp
- How the device is mounted
- Power of the UV emitter
- The most popular models of UV Ultraviolet lamps
- #1 - Various versions of Solnyshko
- #2 - Compact Crystal
- #3 - Bactericidal recirculators RZT and ORB series
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is the purpose of ultraviolet?
Ultraviolet is radiation that is invisible to humans and occupies the region between X-rays and the visible spectrum. Its wavelengths range from 10 to 400 nanometers.
Physicists conventionally divide the ultraviolet spectrum into near and far, as well as identify three types of its constituent rays.
In nature it practically does not occur, except for high in the mountains. But it can be produced under artificial conditions. Radiation B is considered of medium harshness.
It is what affects people in the middle of a hot summer day. If used inappropriately it can cause harm. And finally, the mildest and most beneficial are the Type A rays. They can even cure a person of some diseases.
Ultraviolet has wide application in medicine and other fields. First of all, because in its presence the body produces vitamin D, which is necessary for normal child development and adult health. This element makes bones stronger, strengthens the immune system and allows the body to properly absorb a number of essential micronutrients.
In addition, medics have proven that under the influence of ultraviolet light, the brain synthesizes serotonin, the hormone of happiness. That's why we love sunny days and get a kind of depression when the sky is covered with clouds. In addition, ultraviolet light is used in medicine as a bactericidal, anti-myocidal and mutagenic agent. The therapeutic effects of radiation are also known.
The radiation of the ultraviolet spectrum is not uniform. Physicists distinguish three groups of its constituent rays. The rays of group C, the harshest radiation
Targeted to a certain area, strictly dosed rays give good therapeutic effect for a number of diseases. A new field, laser biomedicine, has emerged in which ultraviolet light is used. It is used to diagnose ailments and to monitor the condition of organs after operations.
Widespread use of UV radiation is also found in cosmetology, where it is most often used to tan and combat some skin problems.
Hard UV radiation for disinfecting rooms has been successfully used in medicine for decades. Similar activities can also be performed in the home
Don't underestimate the deficiency of ultraviolet light. When it occurs, the person suffers from avitaminosis, the immune system is reduced and nervous system malfunctions are diagnosed.
Propensity for depression and mental instability are formed. Given all of these factors, for those who wish to have been developed and produced household versions of ultraviolet lamps for different purposes. Let us take a closer look at them.
Main varieties of UV lamps
Practice shows that it is most common to purchase ultraviolet emitters for home disinfection purposes. Hard rays in the 100 to 320 nm range have been proven to effectively kill microorganisms.
They kill bacteria and mold spores, even those in an inactive dormant state. Radiation kills eggs of exoparasites, dust mites, insects.
Special ultraviolet lamps are available for the normal growth of plants suffering from a lack of sunlight
It should be understood that destruction only occurs within reach of the rays, which, unfortunately, cannot penetrate very deeply into a wall or upholstered furniture. To combat microorganisms requires different duration of exposure. Bacilli and cocci are the least resistant. Protozoa, spore bacteria and fungi are the most resistant to UV light.
All the same, the room can be completely disinfected if the irradiation time is carefully selected. This takes an average of 20 minutes. During this time you can get rid of pathogens, mold and fungal spores, etc.
The operating principle of a standard UV lamp is very simple. It consists of a mercury gas filled bulb. Electrodes are attached to its ends.
At voltage is applied, an electric arc is formed between them, which vaporizes the mercury, which becomes a source of powerful light energy. We have given more information on mercury-containing lamps here.
Depending on the design of the device, the main characteristics of the device differ.
View #1 - quartz emitting devices
The bulb for these lamps is made of quartz, which has a direct effect on their emission quality. They emit rays in the \"hard\" 205-315 nm UV range. For this reason quartz devices have an effective disinfecting effect.
They are very good against all known bacteria, viruses, other microorganisms, unicellular algae, spores of different kinds of mold and fungi.
The open type UV lamps can be compact. Such devices disinfect clothes, shoes and other objects very well
We should know that UV waves having a length less than 257 nm activate the formation of ozone, which is considered the strongest oxidizer. Due to this in the process of disinfection UV acts together with ozone, which makes it possible to kill microorganisms quickly and effectively.
But such lamps have a significant disadvantage. Their effect is dangerous not only for pathogenic microflora, but also for all living cells. This means that animals, people and plants must be removed from the lamp area during the disinfection process. Given the name of the device, the disinfection procedure with it is called quartz disinfection.
It is used to disinfect hospital wards, operating rooms, catering facilities, industrial premises, etc. Simultaneous use of ozonation allows preventing the development of pathogenic microflora and putrefaction, keeping food fresh longer in warehouses or stores. Such lamps may be used for therapeutic purposes.
View #2 - Bactericidal ultraviolet emitters
The main difference from the device described above is the material of the bulb. Bactericidal lamps have a uviolet glass bulb. This material retains the \"hard\" waves well, so that ozone is not generated during operation of the equipment. Thus the disinfection is achieved only through the exposure to safer soft radiation.
The uviol glass from which the bulb of the bactericidal lamps is made completely retains the hard radiation. For this reason the device is less effective
Such devices pose little threat to humans and animals, but the time and exposure to pathogenic microflora must be greatly increased. Such devices are recommended for use in the home.
In medical institutions and equivalent establishments, they may operate continuously. In this case it is necessary to cover the lamps with a special cover that will direct the light upwards.
This is necessary to protect the eyesight of visitors and workers. Bactericidal lamps are absolutely safe for the respiratory organs as they do not emit ozone, but are potentially harmful to the cornea of the eye.
Long-term exposure to it may result in burns, which over time will cause visual impairment. For this reason, it is advisable to use special goggles to protect the eyes while operating the device.
View #3 - Amalgam type devices
Improved and therefore safer to use ultraviolet lamps. Their peculiarity is that the mercury inside the bulb is not present in a liquid but in a bound state. It is part of the solid amalgam that covers the inside of the lamp.
The amalgam is an alloy of indium and bismuth with the addition of mercury. When heated, the latter begins to evaporate and emit ultraviolet light in the process.
The inside of amalgam-type ultraviolet lamps is an alloy containing mercury. Because the substance is bound, the device is completely safe even after damage to the bulb
Amalgam type devices do not release ozone during operation, making them safe. The bactericidal effect is very high. The design features of these lamps make them safe even in case of careless handling.
If the cold bulb is broken for any reason, you can simply throw it in the nearest trash can.
If the integrity of a burning lamp is damaged, things are a little more complicated. Mercury vapors will come out of it because they are hot amalgam. However, their amount is minimal and they will not cause harm.
For comparison, if a bactericidal or quartz device breaks, there is a real health hazard. Each one contains about 3 grams of liquid mercury, which can be dangerous if spilled. For this reason, whole mercury-containing lamps must be disposed of in a special way. If the bulb is damaged, the area where the mercury has spilled is treated by specialists.
Another advantage of amalgam devices is their durability. Compared to their counterparts, their service life is at least twice as long. This is due to the fact that bulbs coated with amalgam from the inside do not lose their transparency. Whereas lamps with liquid mercury gradually become covered by a thick, opaque residue which reduces their life considerably.
What to look for when choosing a device?
Before you decide to buy a device, you should determine exactly whether you really need it. The purchase will be perfectly justified if there are some indications. The lamp may be used for disinfecting rooms, water, common objects, etc.
It should be understood that one should not get too carried away because life in sterile conditions is very unfavorable for the immunity, especially for children.
Before buying an ultraviolet lamp you should decide for what purposes it will be used. You should understand that you should use it very carefully and only after consulting your doctor
Hence physicians recommend the judicious use of the device in families with frequently ill children during seasonal illnesses. The device will be useful in the care of bedridden patients, as it not only disinfects the room, but also helps to fight bedsores, removes unpleasant odors, etc.
The UV lamp can cure some diseases, but in this case it is used only on the doctor's recommendation.
Ultraviolet helps with inflammations of the ENT organs, dermatitis of different origin, psoriasis, neuritis, rickets, flu and colds, the treatment of ulcers and hard-to-heal wounds, gynecological problems.
Home use of UV lamps for cosmetic purposes is possible. In this way you can get a beautiful tan and get rid of skin problems, dry nails covered with a special varnish.
Besides this there are special lamps for disinfecting water and devices that stimulate the growth of house plants. All of them have specific features that do not allow their improper use. Thus, the range of household UV lamps is very large.
Universal options among them are quite few, so before buying you need to know exactly for what purposes and how often the device will be used.
The enclosed type ultraviolet lamp is the safest option for occupants. Its scheme of operation is shown in the figure. The air is disinfected inside the protective housing
There are also a number of factors that must be considered when choosing.
Type of household UV lamp
For home use, manufacturers produce three types of equipment:
- Open lamps. The ultraviolet from the source spreads unobstructed. The use of such devices is limited by the characteristics of the lamp. They are most often switched on for strictly defined times and animals and people are removed from the room.
- Closed devices or recirculators. The air is drawn inside the sheltered body of the device, where it is disinfected and then discharged into the room. These lamps are not hazardous to others, so they can operate in the presence of people.
- Specialized equipment designed to perform specific tasks. Most often equipped with a set of nozzles-tubes.
Specialists recommend the choice of specialized or closed appliances since these are the safest. But open devices require constant monitoring and strict observance of the rules for their use.
How the device is mounted
The manufacturer offers a choice of two basic models: stationary and mobile. In the first case, the device is supposed to be fixed in the place chosen for it. No relocation is planned.
These devices can be fixed to the ceiling or to the wall. The latter option is more popular. The characteristic feature of the fixed units is the high power that allows one to treat a room with a large area.
The more powerful units are usually the ones with fixed mountings. They are mounted on the wall or on the ceiling so that they cover the entire area of the room during operation
The most common type is the closed recirculator lamps. The mobile units have less power but are easy to relocate.
They can be either closed or open lamps. The latter are especially suitable for disinfecting small spaces: dressing closets, bathrooms, toilets, etc. The mobile units are usually placed on the floor or on tables, which is quite convenient.
And the floor models have greater power and are quite capable of treating a room of impressive dimensions. Most of the specialized equipment is of the mobile type. Relatively recently, interesting models of UV-emitters have appeared. These are peculiar hybrids of a lamp and a germicidal lamp with two operating modes. They work as lighting fixtures or disinfect the room.
Power of the ultraviolet emitter
To use the UV lamp properly, it is important that its power match the size of the room in which it will be used.
The manufacturer usually indicates in the product data sheet the so-called \"room coverage\". This is the area that is affected by the device. If this information is not available, the power of the device will be indicated.
The power determines the coverage of the equipment and its exposure time. When selecting a UV lamp, this should definitely be taken into account
An average unit of 15 W will be sufficient for rooms up to 65 cubic meters in volume. This means that such a lamp may safely be purchased if the area of the rooms to be treated is from 15 to 35 sq. m. at a height of no more than 3 m. More powerful units producing 36 Watt will be sufficient for rooms measuring 100-125 sq.m. at a standard ceiling height.
The most popular models of UV lamps
The assortment of UV emitters designed for home use is quite broad. Domestic manufacturers produce high-quality, effective and quite affordable equipment. Let us consider several such devices.
№ 1 - Various modifications of the brand Solnyshko
Open-type quartz emitters of various capacities are produced under this brand name. Most models are designed to disinfect surfaces and spaces with an area not exceeding 15 square meters.
In addition, the device can be used for therapeutic irradiation of adults and children over the age of three. The device is multifunctional and therefore considered versatile.
The Sunshine Ultraviolet Emitter is particularly popular. This versatile device is able to disinfect the space and perform therapeutic procedures for which it is equipped with a set of special nozzles
The body is equipped with a special protective screen which is used during therapeutic procedures and is removed when the room is disinfected. Depending on the model, the equipment is equipped with a set of special nozzles or tubes for various therapeutic procedures.
Since the device may be considered an open type emitter, it is necessarily equipped with protective goggles and a biodosimeter to help ensure that the radiation dose is not exceeded.
Let us see the Solnyshko UV lamps:
#2 - compact emitters Crystal
Another sample of domestic production. It is a mobile device of small dimensions. Intended solely for disinfection of spaces up to 60 cub.m.
A room of standard height with an area of no more than 20 sq.m. The unit is an open type of lamp and therefore requires proper handling.
The Crystal mobile UV unit is very convenient to use. It is important to remember to remove plants, animals and people
When the unit is in operation it is necessary to remove plants, animals and people from the area of operation. The design of the unit is very simple. There is no timer and no automatic shutdown system. For this reason the user must check the operating time himself.
If necessary the UV lamp can be replaced by a standard fluorescent lamp and then the unit will work as a normal fixture.
How the Crystal germicidal lamp works:
Number 3 - RZT and ORB series bactericide recirculators
These are powerful closed-type devices. They are designed to disinfect and purify the air. The units are equipped with a UV lamp inside a closed protective casing.
This powerful device can effectively purify the air in the room without affecting the health of the people around
The air is sucked inside the unit by the fan and after treatment is conveyed outside. This allows the device to operate in the presence of people, plants or animals that are not adversely affected.
Depending on the model, the devices can be further equipped with filters that trap dirt particles and dust. The equipment is mainly available as stationary devices with wall mountings, ceiling-mounted variants can also be found. In some cases, the unit can be removed from the wall and placed on a table.
Conclusions and a useful video on the subject
Selecting the right ultraviolet emitter for your home:
Ultraviolet is essential for every living thing. Unfortunately, it is not always available in sufficient quantities. In addition, UV rays are a powerful weapon against a wide variety of microorganisms and pathogenic microflora. That is why many people think about buying a household ultraviolet emitter.
When making a choice, one should not forget that the device should be used with utmost care. It is necessary to follow the doctor's recommendations strictly and not to overdo it. Large doses of UV light are very dangerous for all life.
Would you like to share your experience of using the UV lamp at home? Write your opinion about the device - are you satisfied with this manufacturer and the quality of the disinfection?
Or are you just planning your purchase and have questions or doubts about the advisability of buying a UV disinfection device? Ask our experts for advice in the block below this article - we will try to help you.