The heating system in a single-storey house can be assembled according to various schemes. When choosing the best option, the budget of the project and the availability of fuels are taken into account.
And the peculiarities of the structural elements of a private residential building: the area of the object, the materials used in construction, the availability of storage space to install boiler equipment.
Let us understand what rules should be followed when designing the heating system, and what actions are better to abandon to avoid problems with heating in the future.
Content of the article:
- Custom heating requirements
- Classification with The arrangement of all functional elements must be as convenient as possible for operation and routine repairs without disturbing the structural integrity of the house.
Basic requirements for modern heating systems:
- energy efficiency;
- easy installation and maintenance;
- high heat output;
- complete/partial independence from electricity.
Before starting the heating design it is necessary to choose the most suitable and economical source of heat energy - stove or fireplace, water, steam, air or electric heating.
And it is still necessary to determine the basic scheme of the pipe wiring for heating of a single-storey private house, to calculate the capacity without errors and objectively assess the load on the system, taking into account all the peculiarities.
The individual heating system must create a comfortable microclimate inside the house during the winter season and be economical and reliable in operation
A correctly installed heating distribution system makes it possible to provide uniform heating in all rooms of the private house within a minimum amount of time.
Classification of heating systems
In single-storey buildings, cottages, houses, autonomous heating systems or those dependent on external power sources are installed. The former operate on liquefied gas, diesel as well as solid fuel. The latter need to be connected to the power grid or the main gas pipeline.
Another difference between the heating options is the need for human participation in the operation of equipment.
Systems with automated control do not require round-the-clock monitoring or manual adjustment. Thermostats and temperature sensors provide a comfortable temperature inside the building.
These devices regularly monitor the temperature changes, which allows the heating system to take into account all factors that have a direct effect on the room temperature: solar heat, radiation from household appliances, heat from lamps for lighting, etc.
The heating system is often installed together with a boiler automation system. Its main task is to achieve the highest possible economy, but not to exceed the allowed parameters
Automatics make it possible to change the temperature regime in the house at different times of the day.
The classification of heating systems takes into account attributes such as:
- type of heating medium - air, water or steam, combined;
- type of fuel used - gas, electric, peat, wood, pellet, coal;
- the mode of transport of working fluid - with natural and forced circulation;
- heat-transfer path - passing and dead-end;
- the way the boiler equipment is connected - single-pipe and double-pipe arrangement;
- wiring arrangement - with vertical or horizontal, upper or lower distribution line, combined arrangement.
In multi-family buildings vertical distribution is dominant, while horizontal distribution is common in single story buildings. Combined methods of heat supply prevail in high-rise new buildings.
Peculiarities of heating medium circulation
In private low-rise buildings, heating systems with liquid heating medium are efficient. For this purpose the pipes are filled with non-freezing antifreeze or water.
The working fluid can move through the heating circuit in a natural or forced mode. The water heated by the heat generator flows into the distribution pipe and then to the radiators. This part of the circuit is called the forward stroke.
After reaching the batteries, the heating fluid cools down and is rapidly sent to the boiler for reheating. This interval is called the return stroke. In order to speed up the transport of the heating medium, a circulation pump is installed inside the system.
Natural movement of the fluid
In the heating circuit, the horizontal pipes are sloped, creating the conditions for the working fluid to move due to gravity.
Also an open expansion tank, a special tank to receive excess water, is installed to ensure the proper and safe operation of all components of the utility system.
Water systems work fully with liquid fuel, solid fuel, gas and electric boilers
Functioning heating systems with natural circulation due to different density of heated and cold coolant. According to the laws of physics, the hot water rushes up.
In a closed circuit, the cold currents inevitably displace the heated ones, forcing them to move in the opposite direction from the heat source. The moving fluid with its kinetic energy potential passes through all the batteries, giving up heat. After returning to the boiler equipment, the cycle repeats.
The single-pipe heating system with water radiators is extremely popular among consumers today. The heat transfer medium is water, but a non-freezing working fluid is also allowed, which will prevent the pipes from collapsing in winter
For a self-supporting design to work fully, the boiler is installed below the central axis of the main circuit. Usually the heat generator is installed in a floor recess, but sometimes in basements, except for gas-fired units.
The supply pipe from the boiler is lifted vertically to the highest possible point. This creates additional space in a closed loop for dispersing the working fluid.
The number of necessary shut-off valves in gravity heating systems is kept to a minimum. Strict requirements are imposed on the diameter of the pipes installed - it must not be less than 32 mm. As the speed of water movement in the circuit is low, only large diameter pipes are installed in order to increase the heating efficiency.
An expansion tank is installed at the upper point of open heating systems. Closed systems are usually equipped with an automatic air vent
Autonomous heating system based on the natural way of fluid circulation is the simplest one. Such a home heating project is easy to implement in practice. However, this option is suitable only for small private buildings, because the length of the heating circuit is limited to 30 meters.
The main advantage of self-heating systems is complete independence from electricity. Read more about heating systems with natural circulation below.
Compulsory system circulation
For private buildings larger than 60 square meters, heating is designed with forced fluid transport. A circulation pump is installed in a closed circuit to ensure accelerated movement of the hot coolant to the radiators and of the cooled coolant to the heat generator.
Pipe installation in the system can be performed without a slope in the horizontal plane. The water flows due to the pressure differential between the forward and backward movement of the liquid.
The presence of a pump device significantly increases the efficiency of the heating system and minimises the fuel consumption needed to maintain a comfortable room temperature in a private house
The energy dependence is a major drawback of the pressurised system. Continuous circulation of water in the circuit requires continuous operation of the pump, and its performance is directly dependent on the power supply.
In case of a sudden power outage, the equipment simply will not be able to pump the liquid. That is why experts recommend installing additional backup generators capable of ensuring a stable, uninterrupted heat supply even in unforeseen situations.
Such schemes can be used when installing heating in buildings of any area. It is only necessary to choose a circulation pump with suitable capacity values and provide a power supply.
Single pipe heating system
In a house only one main line is installed under or above the floor with batteries connected in series. In such a heating circuit, there is no distribution into a supply pipe and a return pipe.
On the perimeter of a single-story building, only one pipe of circular section with a diameter of at least 32 mm is mounted, which is conventionally divided in half. The half departing from the heat generator is called the supply, and the second part of the line - the return. Using a welded or seamless small diameter pipe, radiators/convectors are mounted in the loop.
Organizing a heating system with natural circulation involves installing a supply pipe with a slope of 4-5 mm every 2 m
The single pipe system includes the following functional elements:
- heating source (boiler);
- heating radiators;
- expansion tank;
- pipe distribution elements.
The heated fluid enters the radiators one after the other, giving away part of its heat each time. After that, it is returned to the boiler for the next heating cycle. Each battery loses heat and the last element in the chain is the coldest in comparison with the others.
There are several ways to optimize the single pipe system. Special thermostatic valves for heat exchangers, controllable balancing valves or compact ball valves can be added. Such equipment helps to normalize the heat supply to the radiators.
Installed valves allow you to adjust the amount of heat supplied to each individual radiator
Another way is to increase the number of sections of each subsequent radiator in the heating circuit. And you can also install a circulation pump. The pump device is connected at the end of the return - the place where the working fluid has the lowest temperature values.
The single-pipe heating variant is characterized by easy installation and commissioning. Heat loss is kept to a minimum since absolutely all connections are located inside the living rooms of a private house.
It can be arranged as a horizontal flow system with pressurized heating fluid or as a vertical heating network with natural, pressurized or combined flow of the working fluid.
We also recommend that you read our other material where we examined in detail the one-pipe heating system for a private house.
Horizontal distribution method
The supply pipe is installed in a horizontal plane with the required slope in the direction of movement of the heating water. All radiators around the perimeter of the house must be installed at the same level. To bleed air from the radiators, use the Maevsky taps or automatic air bleeders.
The Maevsky tap is a special device for removing accumulated air from the radiators. The shut-off valve is turned until a clear hissing sound is heard. When the mixture of gases is removed, water flows out of the tap
The horizontal line can be installed in the floor structure itself or mounted above it. In order to avoid heat loss, the pipes must be insulated in the first case.
In such a system, the transport of the liquid heat carrier is ensured by natural circulation and therefore no additional pump is needed. Energy independence is a major advantage of a vertical one-pipe system for heating the house.
With this method of distribution, the working fluid, heated to a given temperature, moves up the riser pipe and then through distribution pipes enters the batteries. The efficiency of the vertically arranged single-pipe system is achieved by installing the line with a slope, as well as the installation of pipes with a large diameter.
Of course, a massive pipe will not decorate the interior of living rooms. But this obvious disadvantage can be avoided by installing circulation equipment in the system.
Two-pipe heating system
The main difference of the two-pipe home heating scheme is the presence of one pipe for water supply and another one for its return. The first pipe is used to supply hot water and the second pipe is used to return the cooled water to the boiler.
Each battery is served by both supply and return risers. This makes it possible to regulate the amount of heat received by the individual radiators. If the cooling of the heating medium in the pipes is not taken into account, it appears that all heating elements are supplied with the same temperature.
This is what a standard two-pipe heating system looks like, in which a two-circuit gas boiler provides the heating fluid
A two-pipe heating scheme includes:
- heat generator;
- expansion tank;
- shutoff valves and special fixtures for air discharge.
From the boiler to the expansion tank runs a hot water pipe. It is then connected in the heating circuit to the distribution line. In addition, an overflow pipe is inserted into the tank for timely discharge of excess heat carrier into the sewage system.
From the bottom of the heat exchangers come out pipes, combined into one return line. The cooled coolant flows back to the boiler. The return line is laid strictly parallel to the upper pipes. It should pass through all the rooms where the hot water supply line is laid.
Two-pipe systems with coercion are considered the most effective for single-storey houses and cottages, but they can provide heat and two-storey buildings of large area.
And these allow to heat the room evenly and very quickly and maintain different temperature conditions in the rooms. In addition, the double-circuit version makes it possible to organize not only the heating of the house but also the hot water supply.
The circulation pressure in a two-pipe system depends directly on the installation height of the heating elements
The closed heating systems with forced circulation are installed in two variants - with horizontal and vertical distribution.
The first method is realized in single story houses with long pipes. In these situations, the connection of water radiators to the heating circuit with horizontal distribution - the best solution.
With the second variant of distribution riser is located vertically, which allows to use the scheme even in multi-storey buildings. No air accumulates in such systems as the formed bubbles rise instantaneously vertically right into the expansion tank.
Bottom and top distribution scheme
The bottom distribution system is laid in the basement or cellar. It is also possible to install the pipes under the floor. The heating medium enters the heating device from the bottom upwards.
The gas mixture is evacuated via a special air line connected to the risers. In case of unexpected emergencies, the return and supply risers are equipped with special shut-off valves.
In order to realize the upper branch circuit, the expansion tank is installed at the highest point of the pipeline. The same point is used for branching.
Upper distribution is not possible in private houses without an attic
Types of two-pipe horizontal layout system
The most common way to heat a single story house is a two pipe horizontal layout heating system.
The following schemes are used to organize such a heating circuit:
- tubing or otherwise perimeter;
- collector, otherwise radiant.
According to the Tubing scheme, pipes are connected by tees, the pipes are laid around the perimeter of the room, connected in series to the appliances. The coolant in a perimeter system flows from one battery to another, cooling slightly along the way.
The tee options are subdivided into a flow of heated and cooled coolant. In a dead-end scheme, the hot and cooled water move in different directions. In the incidental scheme, the heated and spent coolant flows in one direction.
In the collector scheme, from the central body of the system, the collector, pipes are led to each of the radiators, due to which the coolant flows to all devices simultaneously.
The device principle resembles solar rays coming from the heat flow distributor, usually located in the center.
Heating design rules
A competently designed system is able to provide a highly efficient and flexible heating system.
It has to work smoothly in the specific local climatic conditions where the single storey house is situated and it has to be easy to operate.
After an energy audit, calculation of savings and annual heating costs, the best option for the house heating system is selected
The preparation of a quality project for heating a single-story house and a precise calculation of system parameters follow a certain plan:
- The first stage is to form a technical task with all requirements and details for the heating system.
- The second step is to collect information on the private object. Specialists should take all the indicators in order to make a scheme of the heating circuit.
- The next step is the calculation of the heat transfer. For this purpose, it is necessary to perform calculations and choose the optimal heating scheme, which will meet the basic construction standards and individual requirements of the customer.
- When all calculations are completed, drawings are made.
- The last stage is the registration and delivery of the finished heating system project to the customer.
The main task of design is to calculate the correct area of heating equipment, select the appropriate diameters of pipes. And also to determine the capacity of the pumping devices, to calculate the places of tie-in of valves and nodes of the system. That is why it is advisable to entrust the process to professionals.
If you really want to carry out calculations yourself, we recommend reading the material where we have carried out the calculation of the heating system for a private house by example.
What information do masters need?
Before the installation work begins, you should discuss all the nuances with the specialists, show your vision of the heating system.
The installer must provide:
- complete information on the materials used for the roof, wall coverings, window constructions;
- plan of single story house;
- drawings where the plumbing units are marked.
The life of the heating system is affected not only by the quality of the engineering design and skillful installation, but also by the materials selected, the boiler equipment installed, and the efficient use of the heating elements.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video shows the 3-D diagram, construction and installation of a single-pipe heating system in a single-storey private house:
The schematic representation of a two-pipe polypropylene heating system, the correct connection of boiler equipment and installation of heating radiators is demonstrated in the video:
In the video, a typical heating project and heat loss calculation are detailed:
Modern heating systems are indispensable attributes of the functioning of private houses, cottages and other construction facilities. Professionally made design - the key to effective, reliable and long-term trouble-free operation of the individual heating system.
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