Thermostatic regulators are small but very practical devices for controlling the heat output in the home. Depending on the actual need, temperature regulators for heating batteries increase or decrease the volume of heat transfer fluid. You will agree that this is good for the well-being of house/apartment owners and their wallets.
Would like to buy thermoregulators to equip the radiators we suggest to read a detailed description of the types of heat output control devices. We have given and compared their control methods, principle of operation, cost, specifics of installation. Our recommendations will help you to choose the best variety.
The presented information, gathered and systematized for future buyers of heat regulators, we have supplemented it with clear photo-samples, diagrams, normative tables, videos.
Content of the article:
- The benefits of heating thermostats
- Thermostat types and operating principles
- Gas-filled and liquid thermostats
- Tips before starting to install a thermostat
- Installing of automatic thermostats
- The method of setting a mechanical thermostat
- Conclusions and a useful video on the subject
The usefulness of heating thermostats
It is known, that the temperature in the different rooms of the house cannot be the same. It is also not necessary to have the same temperature all the time.
For example, in the bedroom at night you should lower the temperature to 17-18oC. This has a positive effect on sleep and relieves headaches.
Thermostatic valve or valve is the essential component for thermostatic control
Thermostatic controller with remote thermostat
The thermal head for automatic control
Thermostatic valve or valve is basic component
The thermostatic valve for one-pipe systems
Thermostatic valve for two-pipe systems
Benefits of installing thermostatic controls for heating appliances
The optimal temperature in the kitchen is 19oC. This is due to the fact that there are many heating appliances in the room, which generate additional heat. If the bathroom temperature is below 24-26oC, then the room will feel damp. Therefore, it is important to provide a high temperature here.
If the house provides a children's room, its temperature range can vary. A child under one year old requires a temperature of 23-24oC, for older children 21-22oC will be sufficient. The rest of the rooms may have temperatures between 18 and 22oC.
The comfort temperature range should be adapted to the room and partly to the time of day
At night time the air temperature in all rooms may be reduced. It is not necessary to maintain a high temperature in the dwelling if the house is to be empty for some time, as well as during sunny warm days, when some electrical appliances generating heat, etc. are in operation.
In these cases the thermostat installation has a positive effect on the microclimate - the air is not overheated or dehumidified.
The table shows that the temperature in the living rooms should be 18-23oC during the cold season. In the staircase, in the storage room low temperatures of 12-19oC
Thermostat solves the following problems:
- allows creating a certain temperature regime in the rooms of different functions;
- saves the boiler's resource, reduces the amount of consumables for the system maintenance (up to 50%);
- allows making an emergency shutdown of a battery without switching off the whole riser.
It should be remembered that with a thermostat it is not possible to increase the efficiency of the battery, to increase its heat output. People with individual heating system can save on consumables. Residents of apartment buildings with a thermostat can only regulate the temperature in the room.
Learn what types of thermostats there are, and how to make the right choice of equipment.
Thermostat types and operating principles
Thermostats are divided into three types:
- mechanicalwith manual adjustment of the heating medium;
- electroniccontrolled by a remote temperature sensor;
- semi-electroniccontrolled by a thermal head with a bellows device.
The main advantages of the mechanical type are the low cost, the easy operation, the smooth and coherent operation. During their operation there is no need to use additional energy sources.
Modification allows the manual adjustment of the amount of heat carrier flowing into the radiator, thus controlling the heat output of the batteries. The device is characterized by a high accuracy of regulating the degree of heating.
The main drawback of the design is that it has no markings for adjustment, so it is necessary to make the adjustment of the unit only by experience. We will introduce one method of balancing below
The main elements of the mechanical type regulator are the thermostat and the thermostatic valve
The mechanical thermostatic regulator consists of the following elements:
- a bellows filled with gas or liquid;
The substance contained in the bellows plays a key role. As soon as the position of the thermostat lever changes, the substance moves into the spool, thereby adjusting the position of the stem. The stem, under the action of the element, partially closes the passage, limiting the flow of the coolant into the battery.
Electronic thermostats are more complex designs, based on a programmable microprocessor. It can be used to set a certain temperature in the room by pressing a few buttons on the regulator. Some models are multifunctional, suitable for controlling a boiler, pump, mixer.
The structure and principle of operation of an electronic device is almost the same as its mechanical counterpart. Here the thermostatic element (bellows) is shaped like a cylinder, its walls are corrugated. It is filled with a substance that reacts to fluctuations in the air temperature in the dwelling.
The substance expands when the temperature rises, resulting in pressure on the walls, which promotes the movement of the stem, which automatically closes the valve. As the stem moves, the conductivity of the valve increases or decreases. If the temperature decreases, the working substance is compressed, resulting in the bellows not stretching and the valve opening, and vice versa.
The bellows have high strength, long working life, withstanding hundreds of thousands of compressions over several decades.
The main element of the electronic regulator is the temperature sensor. Its functions include the transmission of information about the ambient temperature, as a result of which the system generates the required amount of heat
Electronic thermostatic regulators are conditionally divided into:
- Closedthermostatic regulators for heating radiators have no function of automatic temperature detection, so they are set in manual mode. It is possible to adjust the temperature to be maintained in the room and the allowed temperature variations.
- OpenThermostats can be programmed. For example, if the temperature drops a few degrees, the operating mode may change. It is also possible to set the time of operation of this or that mode, to adjust the timer. Such devices are mainly used in industry.
Electronic regulators are powered by batteries or a special battery that comes with the charger. Semi-electronic regulators are ideal for domestic purposes. They come with a digital display that shows the room temperature.
The principle of operation of the semi-electronic radiator controllers is taken from the mechanical models, therefore it is regulated manually
Gas and liquid thermostats
The thermostatic design may use a substance in gaseous or liquid state (for example paraffin). On this basis the devices are divided into gas-filled and liquid-filled devices.
Paraffin (liquid or gaseous) has the property to expand when exposed to temperature. As a result, the mass presses against the stem to which the valve is connected. The stem partially closes the pipe through which the coolant flows. Everything happens automatically
Gas-filled regulators have a high service life (from 20 years). The gaseous substance allows a smoother and clearer regulation of the air temperature in the dwelling. The devices come with a sensor that detects the temperature in the house.
Gas bellows are quicker to respond to variations in the room temperature. But liquid regulators are more accurate in transmitting the internal pressure to the moving parts.
Liquid and gas regulators can be of two types:
- with built in sensor;
- with remote sensor.
The devices with built-in sensor are installed horizontally as they require air circulation around them, which prevents the heat from the pipe.
Thermostats are not only suitable for heating systems based on gas, electric boiler or converter. They are used in \"underfloor heating\", \"warm wall\" systems. It is important to select a modification that is suitable for a particular system (+)
Remote sensors are appropriate when:
- battery is covered with heavy curtains;
- the thermostat is positioned vertically;
- the radiator is more than 16 cm deep;
- the controller is less than 10 cm from the sill and more than 22 cm;
- the radiator is installed in a niche.
In these situations the built-in sensor may not work properly, so a remote sensor is used.
Usually the sensors are placed at a 90 degree angle to the radiator body. If installed in parallel its readings will be confused by the heat coming from the radiators.
Tips before starting to install the thermostat
We suggest you read the following tips to remember before starting to install the unit.
- Before installing the locking and regulating mechanism, read the manufacturer's recommendations.
- Temperature regulators have fragile parts that can fail even with a slight shock. Therefore, care and caution should be exercised when handling the device.
- It is important to consider the following point - install the valve so that the thermostat takes a horizontal position, otherwise the warm air coming from the battery can enter the element, which will negatively affect its operation.
- The body has arrows that tell which direction the water should move. When installing the water direction must also be considered.
- If the thermostat is installed on a single pipe system, you must install bypasses under the pipes in advance, otherwise the entire heating system will fail.
Semi-electronic thermostats are installed on batteries that are not covered with curtains, decorative grilles, various interior objects, otherwise the sensor may not work properly. It is also advisable to place the thermostatic sensor 2-8 cm away from the valve.
The thermostat is normally placed in a horizontal pipe section near the entry point of the heating medium to the heater
Electronic temperature controllers should not be installed in the kitchen, hall, in or near the boiler room as these devices are more sensitive than semi-electronic ones. It is advisable to install them in corner rooms, rooms with low temperatures (usually on the north side).
The following general rules should be followed when choosing the installation position:
- Heat generating appliances (e.g. fan heaters), household appliances, etc. must not be placed near the the thermostat;
- admitting the sunlight to the unit and where there are drafts.
By following these simple rules a number of problems occurring during use can be avoided.
Installation of automatic heating controls
The following instructions will help you install the thermostatic regulator on both aluminium and bimetal radiators.
If the radiator is connected to a working heating system, the water must be drained from it. This can be done by means of a ball valve, locking valve or any other device blocking the water supply from the common riser.
After this, open the battery valve located in the area where the water enters the system, close all taps.
After the water has been removed from the battery, it must be purged to remove air. This can also be done with a Maevsky tap
The next step is to remove the adapter. Before this procedure cover the floor with a material that absorbs the moisture well (cloths, towels, soft paper etc.).
The thermostatic valve body is fixed by means of a crescent wrench. At the same time use a second wrench to unscrew the nuts on the pipe and the adapter located in the battery itself. The adapter is then unscrewed from the housing.
It may be necessary to use the valve located inside the battery when unscrewing the adapter
After removing the old adapter, the new one is installed. To do this, the adapter is placed in the structure, the nuts and collar are screwed in, and then the internal threads are carefully cleaned using a clean material.
The cleaned threads are then wrapped several times with white plumber's tape (available separately in specialized stores), then the adapter, as well as the radiator, corner nuts are screwed tight.
The threads must be wrapped with plumber's tape clockwise, making 5-6 turns. It is important that the tape lies flat, therefore it is necessary to smooth it out in time if necessary
When the installation of the adapter is complete, proceed to remove the old collar and install the new collar. In some cases the collar is difficult to remove, so cut out its parts with a screwdriver or hacksaw, and then tear them apart.
Follow is the installation of the thermostat itself. To do this, following the arrows shown on the body, it is placed on the collar, then, fixing the valve with an adjustable wrench, tighten the nut that is between the regulator and the valve. At the same time the nut is tightened firmly with a second spanner.
It is important not to damage the thread when setting the thermostat and after screwing it up to check the connection in order to avoid leaks when the water starts
Finally, open the valve, fill the water tank, check that the system works and does not leak, set a certain temperature. In a two-pipe system you can install thermostats on the upper pipe.
Mechanical thermostat setting method
After installation it is important to set the mechanical models correctly. To do this, close the windows and doors in the room to keep the heat loss to a minimum to give a more accurate result of the heating system.
A room thermometer is placed, then the valve is unscrewed as far as it will go. In this position the coolant will fill the radiator completely, which means that the heat output of the device will be maximal. After some time the temperature must be fixed.
Then turn the head to the stop in the opposite direction. The temperature will start to decrease. When the thermometer shows the optimal values for the room, the valve is opened until the sound of water is heard and a sharp heat-up occurs. At this point, the rotation of the head is stopped, locking its position.
Conclusions and useful video on the subject
The video clearly shows how to set the thermostat and introduce it into the heating system. To take the Living Eco automatic electronic thermostat from the Danfoss brand as an example:
Choose a thermostat according to your own wishes and financial possibilities. For domestic purposes, a mechanical and semi-electronic unit is ideal. Fans of smart technology can give preference to functional electronic modifications. It is also possible to install the devices without involving specialists.
Any questions about the proposed topic? Would you like to share your personal experience with the installation or use of the thermostat? Please write your comments.