Schemes Of The Boiler Room Of A Private House: Principal, Functional, Technological

In the absence of district heating, boilers are responsible for heating the house. To accommodate such equipment it is necessary to prepare a separate room, observing the requirements and safety standards.

Agree, at first glance the task looks complicated. But it is not. Knowing the basics of calculations, rules and principles of design, you can independently plan the room. A typical scheme of the boiler room of a private house is developed taking into account a specific type of boiler and a list of additional equipment of the heating system.

We will help to understand the issue, describe the features of different boiler rooms, indicate the requirements and rules of their arrangement. Thematic videos show examples of the organization of the premises for the installation and piping of boilers.

Content of the article:

  • Private boiler room types
  • Designing a home boiler room
    • Possible layout options
    • Boiler room requirements
    • Boiler room arrangement equipment
  • What is a \"smart boiler\"
  • Gas boiler room for your home
  • Solid fuel boiler room
    • What should the room
    • Equipment for a solid fuel boiler room
  • The advantages of a liquid fuel boiler room
  • Electric boiler for a private boiler room
  • Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Boiler room types for the private sector

The requirements for boiler rooms are given in SNiP with the nomenclature II- 35-76.

Depending on the place where the premises with heating equipment is situated, boilers can be of the following types:

  • built in;
  • standing;
  • attached.

The size of the premises allocated for the boiler room depends on the fuel type, type boiler design.

When it is difficult to make a special boiler room, there is another possibility: the miniboiler room.

It is placed in a metal container, assembled according to the principle of steel construction, which can be placed in the yard of the house. It only remains to connect the mini boiler house to the utilities.

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Boiler house selection according to location type

Separate boiler house

Location of private boiler house

Fire exhaust system

The reason why such modules are not very popular is their rather high price. If there is a prospect of allocating space for a boiler room in the basement, you can buy the equipment separately. Then the heating system will cost much cheaper.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

Mini boiler room in the yard next to the mansion eliminates the design work, construction and arrangement of a separate room, ventilation devices. The container already contains everything you need for an efficient heating system

Home Boiler Room Design

Home heating consumes a large part of the family budget. That is why at the stage of system design it is necessary to strive for its maximum optimization by performing a precise calculation of the boiler room layout for a country house.

It is necessary to calculate all options of equipment arrangement, including boiler, expansion tank, radiators as well as to consider the specifics of the distribution and circulation.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

Designing the boiler room it is necessary to proceed from the requirements of regulatory documents. The boiler room is often equipped with auxiliary heating because the heat emitted by the boiler itself is not sufficient (+)

A properly made schematic diagram of the boiler room must show all the elements and the piping connecting them.

The standard drawing includes: boilers, pumps - make-up, network, circulation, recirculation, tanks - condensing and accumulation, heat exchangers, fans, fuel feed and combustion devices, control panels, heat shields, water deaerator.

Possible boiler plant layouts

The layout of the boiler plant can be based on one of two possible layouts:

  • open
  • closed.

The layouts are less expensive, but more demanding in operation. The second option is more complicated in the initial phase, but the leakage of the heating medium is practically reduced to zero, as the system is hermetically sealed. This scheme is used in most private houses.

The closed system includes a boiler providing hot water for both the heating system and the water heating circuit, a closed hot water supply pipe.

Circulation of the heating medium is forced here by means of a pump. This makes it possible to install the pipes as conveniently as possible without having to take care of the gradient.

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Location of the equipment in the basement

Open expansion tank

Organisation boiler room for a closed system

Boiler room for a closed heating circuit

Requirements for the boiler room

There are 2 types of requirements There are two types of requirements for the boiler room in a detached house: general and specific, depending on the type of fuel used.

The requirements of the first kind include:

  1. A maximum of two boilers may be installed in the same room, whatever the size.
  2. The boiler room must not be built and finished with materials that do not comply with fire safety requirements. Brick or concrete blocks should be used to build the walls and plaster or tile should be used as a finish. The floor must have a concrete or metal coating.
  3. Ventilation and chimney must comply with the equipment installed. Special requirements are placed on ventilation in the case of gas-fired equipment. In all cases the air must circulate and renew at least three times within 60 minutes.
  4. A mandatory requirement is a window and door opening to the outside. A second door leading to an auxiliary room is possible but must comply with fire safety conditions.

The size of the boiler room must be calculated on the basis of the fittings to be installed and the extra square metres for easy servicing.

There are further requirements for the boiler room and fittings depending upon the decision for the fuel.

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The main system unit, the boiler, and the equipment for operating and controlling the heating circuits must be positioned in the boiler room so as to provide access to both the heat generator and the other components for maintenance

Associated rooms must be provided with ventilation openings. If the air is supplied from outside the house, the cross-section of the ventilation openings shall be calculated as 600 mm² for each kW of boiler unit

Building structures in the boiler room shall be finished with non-combustible materials. In wooden buildings the walls are plastered, protected with asbestos and tin

For the installation of floor solid-fuel, liquid-fuel and gas boilers the foundation must be strengthened. Ideally, the boiler room should have its own separate foundation

A single boiler room may not contain more than two heat generators, regardless of whether they are wall or floor type

When using liquid or solid fuel, a place for storing firewood/peat/coal or tanks for fuel oil must be considered and provided in advance,

The boiler room must be equipped with a chimney or a walled-in chimney

When planning the boiler's piping, the boiler's When planning the boiler piping, the most reasonable way of draining the system at the end of the season or in case of long absences of the owners

Boiler room location rules

Securing the venting openings

Surface finish in the boiler room

Base for installing a heat generator

Maximum two units in the boiler room

Design of the fuel storage scheme

Design of the smoke exhaust system

The possibility of draining the water circuit

Boiler house equipment

Independent on the selected fuel type, the process layout of any boiler house includes approximately the same obligatory elements. The main place in the boiler room is occupied by the boiler. Here the coolant is heated and then flows through pipelines to the radiators.

If the house has a large area, a manifold must be installed. The element distributes the coolant between the heating devices, combined into separate groups. The manifold is equipped with a hydrostring which is a hollow pipe with outlets.

Circulation pumps are mounted on each circuit. A safety group including a number of sensors, manometers, thermometers is also part of the manifold.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

Heating system with hydraulic manifold. With a hydraulic manifold in the circuit, the temperature of the heating medium rises faster when the equipment is started. It stabilizes the pressure, the temperature, protects against water hammer

The expansion tank is also an indispensable element of the scheme. One cannot do without a water heater in a private house that provides hot water to its residents. The modern boiler house shall be necessarily equipped with automatics controlling all parameters of the system.

In any scheme there is a pipeline for the supply of coolant, shut-off valves allowing to regulate and adjust the heating system.

The heating system necessarily has two interconnected systems:

  • smoke exhaust - venting the flue gases;
  • ventilation - ensures quality combustion by supplying air.

Both systems are as important as the boiler equipment.

What is a \"smart boiler\"

To realize an automation scheme for a private boiler house, you need to invest extra money. A simple thermostatic valve is quite inexpensive, but programmable systems are many times more expensive.

Constant operation of a conventional boiler in one mode entails a large consumption of electricity and money. Therefore the purchase costs for the automation unit are quickly recouped during operation.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

Automatics in a private boiler house is a guarantee that the heating system operates with maximum efficiency, allowing for a comfortable environment for those living in the house

Installing the automatics, the house owner can adjust the heating process according to his needs. This will cut your energy bills by half.

The automatic boiler control provides the possibility to:

  1. Switch off the boilerin case of abnormal situations. To carry out an automatic start or stop of the boiler in the operating mode. Depending on the outdoor temperature set the heating temperature.
  2. Control the heating or water heating branches of a boiler having 1 combustion chamber.
  3. Adjust the temperature of the water or other heating medium.
  4. Correct the operation of the circulation or recirculation pumps when the house heating is arranged in a closed circuit. In this case it is not possible to operate the system without automatics.

The most important element of the heating system is the thermostat. Its function is to regulate the temperature both in the individual room and in the whole house.

There are many kinds of thermostats - from simple mechanical to thermostat-independent. The last one is the most technological and profitable, but also very expensive.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

The heating control system consists of a temperature controller (1), an outdoor temperature sensor (2), an actuator (3), a coolant temperature sensor (4), a display for connection to the control system, external (5), circulation pump (6), heating medium supply (7), consumer circuits (8) (+)

The price of the automatics depends on the type of boiler used, on the presence of a warm floor, solar collectors, etc. д. In order not to spend too much money, you should analyze the features of all schemes, calculate the cost. It is quite difficult to do it yourself, but you can always turn to experts with this problem.

Gas boiler for your home

Gas is an explosive substance, so the requirements for gas boilers are very strict. If a boiler of up to 30 kW is sufficient for heating the house, there is no need for a separate boiler room.

The boiler can be placed in a well ventilated kitchen on a wall of non-combustible materials provided that the room volume is at least 15 m ᶾ, floor to ceiling height from 2,5 m and floor area from 6 m².

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

If the kitchen room has no walls of non-combustible materials, the boiler is installed on a plastered and insulated surface with a special screen

All requirements for gas boilers are related to preventing the consequences of possible gas leaks. To this end, the window area in the room where the gas equipment is installed starts from 0.5 m² and the width of the door from 0.8 m.

The chimney of such a boiler room must be elevated above the roof ridge by at least 500 cm and have an additional channel for cleaning. Condensate collectors must be installed on the chimney and vent.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

When gas arrives at the boiler, an electronic or piezo ignition is activated. A spark is produced and it ignites the igniter and from this the main burner, which heats the heating medium to the set temperature. Then, the automation switches off the burner

If the capacity of the gas boiler exceeds 30 kW, a separate building is required for it.

The requirements for a freestanding boiler room are set forth in the building code:

  • the foundation of the boiler building shall be separate from the foundation of the house;
  • the concrete mortar used in erecting the building shall contain a certain percentage of sand;
  • a separate foundation shall be made for the boiler, raising it 0.2 m above the floor finish;
  • a flat slate or tiled floor must be provided under the boiler which overhangs the boiler by 0,1 m all around;
  • in case of emergency the boiler room must be equipped with a drainage system;
  • a space of 0,7 m around the boiler must be free;
  • decks must have a fire safety factor of 0,75.

There are special normative requirements for the boiler itself as it does not belong to the household appliances but to the category of complex engineering equipment. Gas boilers, like all others used in the domestic sector, must have a certificate certifying that they have passed a safety examination.

The regulatory authorities will never give permission to put a boiler room with a gas boiler into operation if there is no gas alarm on the premises.

Boiler room with solid fuel boiler

According to building regulations, solid fuel boilers are installed only in non-residential premises. If the capacity of the unit is large, it will be necessary to build a separate boiler room.

What the room must be

There are a number of requirements for a solid fuel boiler room:

  • the distance between the furnace door and the wall is 1,2 to 1,5 m;
  • the distance from the side walls of the boiler to the wall made of nonflammable material or protected by a special screen is at least 1 m;
  • spacing between the rear wall of the boiler and a surfaceof combustible material with a protective screen - minimum 0,5 m for boilers with rear connection;
  • prevent superstructureover the boiler room;
  • efficient supply ventilationin the bottom as a space between the door and the floor or an opening in the wall

If the wall is made of a material complying with fire safety requirements, it is acceptable to attach the pipe behind the boiler by means of brackets.

In order to operate the CT with dimensions of 1x0.8 m at the base at least with the minimum comfort, it is necessary to install it in a room of 2.8x2.5 m. As the size of the unit increases, the size of the boiler room also increases.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

Solid fuel boiler installation should be planned already at the stage of house building to provide space for chimney

If the boiler room is an extension, the correct location for it is a blank wall. The distance to windows and doors, both vertically and horizontally, must be at least 1 m. When the boiler room is situated in a cellar, basement or first floor, a door opening outwards must be installed.

Solid fuel boiler room equipment

A functional and competently designed boiler room layout with a solid fuel boiler must include a number of elements:

  • The heat generatorwith appropriate bunkers, fuel chambers etc. etc.
  • Boiler CT systemcomplete with circulation pump, 3-way valve, safety group.
  • Combustion chimney.
  • Hot water heaterfor the hot water supply of the house.
  • Automatics - weatherproof or in-house.
  • Fire extinguishing system.

Coal, peat, wood are used as fuel for the DH. The diameter of the chimney in the boiler room with the TT unit must be equal to the boiler spigot. Exhaust ventilation is necessary in the room, calculated so that for every 8 cm² of its area there is 1 kW of boiler output. If the boiler is installed in a cellar, this parameter is multiplied by 3. It is necessary that it should protrude on each side for 1 m. The layer of plaster on the walls must be at least 3 cm thick.

In the chimney itself, which has the same cross-section along its entire length, provide holes to collect and remove soot. A means for extinguishing fires is a mandatory attribute.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

A quality solid fuel boiler is capable of turning any kind of solid fuel into heat energy. This saves money

About 0.08m² of glazing area should be allowed for 1 kW of heat output of a TT boiler. The maximum allowable boiler room area is 8m². If the furnace is planned to be loaded with coal, the electric wiring must be protected against coal dust, as it can explode at a certain concentration.

Benefits of a liquid fuel boiler

The liquid fuel boiler is much easier to install than its gas or solid fuel counterpart. It is possible to place it in the house or in the yard.

The main advantage is that there is no need for approval and obtaining permits. All the house owner has to do is to provide free access to a vehicle with fuel and to regularly refuel the boiler.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

If there is no gas mains near the cottage, a unit working on diesel fuel can be installed in the boiler room. A double circuit boiler can heat the house and provide the inhabitants with warm water

To obtain 10 kW of power about 1 litre of diesel fuel is used, but the exact amount depends on the quality of fuel. For a 200 sq. m. house in an average countryside, about 5,000 liters of fuel would be needed for the heating season. The chimney must be cleaned periodically.

For the installation of a diesel boiler an average of 4 m² is needed. If supply ventilation is provided by means of air flow from other rooms of the house, a minimum of 30 cmᶾ of air must be available per 1 kW of boiler output. With external ventilation this figure is reduced to 8 cm.

Electric boiler for private boiler room

Of all the models used in a private house, the safest is the electric boiler. There is no need to equip a separate boiler room for it. When heating the heating medium, no combustion products are emitted, therefore no ventilation is required.

The installation of such boilers is simple, they do not create noise during operation and are easy to care for. Electric boilers have a high efficiency, reaching in some cases up to 99%. The disadvantages are high requirements to the network power and dependence on its stable operation.

Schemes of the boiler room of a private house: principal, functional, technological

Electric boilers can be installed in any corner of the house as long as it is convenient. It consumes much electricity and more often it is used as additional heat source

The electric boiler is connected in different ways: it is connected to the heating radiators and it is possible to install a cascade in case a big area should be heated.

The boiler is connected in two ways - direct and mixing. In the first case the temperature is regulated by a burner and in the second by a servo mixer.

Conclusions and useful video on the subject

Information about the autonomous boiler house in an accessible, even for a person far from this subject, form:

If you are at the stage of choosing boiler equipment, you will find the information given in this video useful:

Video with a detailed diagram of a solid fuel boiler:

Latest developments by boiler equipment companies are aimed at reducing energy consumption through low temperature programs.

The main role in the issue of economy is played by automatics, which allows choosing optimal modes, regulating the temperature in such a way that the level of heating decreases without affecting the overall comfort. These nuances must necessarily be taken into account when drawing up a scheme of the boiler room for your home.

If you have experience in the arrangement of the boiler room of a private house, please share the information with our readers. Leave your comments and ask questions about the subject in the form below.

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