Masonry Furnace With Their Own Hands: A Step By Step Guide, Rowing, Diagrams And Drawings

The furnace is a multifunctional, technically complex structure. Within it, fuel is processed, heat is generated and the products of combustion are vented to the outside. If you plan to mason the furnace with your own hands, it is required to strictly observe the rules verified in practice for centuries, guaranteeing the normal operation of the unit.

Wishing to know how to perfectly build a brick furnace, we will find detailed information on all important issues of interest to an independent master. In the presented article, the technological specificity of the construction is given in the finest details, the basic postulates of furnace makers and significant nuances are scrupulously listed.

The information provided by us will provide effective assistance in the construction of a brick oven. All of its components will be flawless in their duties, and the structure itself will last for many years without complaint. To help home craftsmen, we have selected order schemes, photo-images, video recommendations.

Article Content:

  • Constructive components of brick stoves
    • Foundation: features of construction
    • Massive stoves: specifics of construction
    • Pipe: Options and construction rules
  • Nuances of furnace finishing
  • Probable complications for the stovemaker
  • Making a simplified version of the Russian stove
    • Unique design of a stove Stove foundation
    • Masonry in details
  • Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Brick stove construction components

Before you start the construction of the stove, you have to decide on the purpose of the stove. Heating, cooking, and drying units have significant design differences that must be considered from the outset. There is a justifiable difference in the rows designed by the stovemakers for accurate bricklaying.

There are many stove designs that can be roughly divided into groups according to their purpose:

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Figure Furnace

Traditional heating unit - fireplace

Furnace with a stove for heating and drying

Hob Furnace in a private home

A universal heating and stove with a chimney

Russian whitewash stove with chimney

Brick stove with hot water tank

Kamenka stove in a Russian bathhouse

Dachas (summer houses), As a rule, these cottages are not connected to the central heating system and are mostly equipped with universal heating boilers. Their back side is turned to the living quarters, the front side to the kitchen. On the front side usually have a hob and the main stove appliances.

Let's assume that we are interested in the universal variant, with the construction of which we will thoroughly deal. Like all kinds of stoves, it consists of a foundation, an array including a furnace with appliances belonging to it and ducts, and a chimney.

Foundation: features of construction

The foundation on which the stove is to be placed is always built separately from the foundation of the house.

This fact is justified by a number of good reasons:

  • Brick construction has an impressive weight, the subsidence of soils under it will be much greater than under the walls of the house.
  • The linear dimensions of the unit, working in high temperature mode, are unstable. Stoves are characterized by some movement, which in principle is against the walls of the structure.
  • Separate location of the foundation provides sufficient technological clearance between the stove and the building structures, which ultimately prevents and reduces the possibility of fire.

In addition, an oven built on a separate foundation is easier to repair, easier to modernize and rebuild if necessary.

The oven foundation is made of butte or brick, using lime or cement mortar as the bonding compound. It is forbidden to use clay mixture in the construction of the foundation, as it quickly deteriorates in soils that are constantly somewhat moist.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

A solid concrete foundation is suitable for the construction of a brick stove. The load-bearing capacity of the foundation must be calculated before making it according to the formulas of the reinforced reinforced concrete slab, before making the stove such a foundation is reinforced with a metal angle laid along all the ribs

And the composition of the binder mortar is selected depending on the degree of humidity of the underlying rocks. Lime or lime-cement mortar should be used for foundations in wet soils, but only cement mortar in wet soils

The size of the foundation should be at least 5 - 7 cm larger than the furnace on each side. Its depth depends on the size of the unit, on average it is 0,75 m. For single-storey dachas, it is acceptable to deepen only 0.5 m. The furnace for a two-storey house should stand on a foundation of 1.0 m.

Our website has an article, where we have considered in detail the process of arrangement of a brick furnace for dachas. For more details, follow the link.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

In plan, the stove foundation should be larger than the unit to be built by a minimum of 5 cm on each side. Before laying the stove mass, the foundation must be covered with waterproofing

When building the foundation in butte, it is not brought to the floor level, leaving 14 cm free. This free space is filled with two rows of bricks. The foundation, penetrated to the floor level, is covered with two layers of Ruberoid or roofing felt for waterproofing. Instead of these insulating materials, a 2 cm layer of clay or a cement screed of the same thickness is often used.

Furnace array: specifics of construction

The main components of the furnace array are the body, the firebox and the smoke channels. Full-bodied red bricks are used in the masonry of the body and the ducts that hold the smoke inside the furnace to increase the heat output. The lining, i.e. the inner lining of the furnace, shall be made with refractory refractory bricks.

The body with the flue passages shall be placed on clay-sand mortar. A mixture of fireclay powder and refractory clay is used in the lining. The thickness of joints during masonry tend to minimize. The maximum thickness in the masonry of the casing and channels is 5 mm, in the furnace lining the joints should not exceed 2-3 cm.

We should note at once that the furnace casing and the lining must not be tied together. They must be two separate constructions, as they are heated to different temperature levels and expand differently accordingly.

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Brick stove array construction

Brick heating unit fuelpan

Burner panel in the construction of the dacha stove

Brick masonry flue channels

Finished fireclay and clay-sand mixtures can be purchased for the stove. It is true that the clay and sand mortar can be prepared by yourself without much trouble. The proportions of clay and sand in such a homemade composition are selected depending on the fatness of the clay, the proportion varies in the range from 1:0 to 1:3.

The important condition that ensures the strength of the construction, is the observance of the dressing of joints. This rule will prevent the walls from collapsing. Before carrying out the masonry work, red bricks are soaked for 10 - 15 minutes in a container of water so that they do not \"pull\" water from the \"binding\" mortar, the refractory ones are simply wiped.

While masonry the independent baker should:

  • Check constantly the level of the row and verify the diagonals. If there is even a slight deviation along the diagonals, this is a signal to disassemble the upper rows and correct the mistake.
  • Fill the joints completely with mortar. Regularly wipe the structure from the side with a rag and remove excess binder.
  • Wipe the inside of the chimney surface with a moistened sponge brush. This is required to prevent the formation of roughness.

In order to build a brick stove perfectly, as experienced stovesmen do, each row should be preassembled dry. By trying on the position of the bricks without mortar, you can immediately see mistakes. In addition, it is easier to mark and cut.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

In order to avoid slip-ups and mistakes during laying, experienced bakers first lay a row dry, i.e. without using mortar. After checking the position of the bricks, cutting them according to the rowing, then laying them on the stove with mortar

Without dry laying, only straight rows may be laid without affecting structural parts, appliances and chimneys.

Tubes: options and construction rules

Chimney channels are laid from full-bodied red bricks. Lime or cement-lime mortar is used to bind the elements within the attic. The outer part of the chimney is built exclusively with cement mortar, as the clay mortar is easily and quickly washed out by rainwater and dissolved by winter precipitation.

The type of arrangement of the chimney of brick stoves is divided into three types, these are:

  • House chimneys.The chimney is a direct extension of the unit, rising directly above its chimney body.
  • Cornered.This chimney is placed on a separate foundation, connected to the stove by a sleeve laid out on corners.
  • Wall chimneys.These chimney channels are arranged directly in the capital walls in the middle of the house.

Small stoves for summer homes are built mostly with wall chimneys, they take up less useful space. The flue duct must be exactly vertical and clearly defined in section size and height.

A chimney crosses a wooden floor, an extension that closes the opening but is not adjacent to combustible materials. The gap between the chimney and the floor is filled with soaked in clay mortar or soft asbestos.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

Small stoves for country houses, which the owners dare to build with their own hands, are most often equipped with an overhead chimney. It is installed on the floor of the stove

When the chimney is masoned over the brick roof, an otter is formed - an extension that protects against condensation flowing into the channel. Within the attic chimney plastered and whitewashed, so you can immediately identify leaks that appeared in the whitewash cracks.

At the constructed pipe put a metal deflector - a metal cap on legs that protects against leakage into the channel of atmospheric water. At the same time, this device dampens sparks, which is essential if the roof is made with shingles or ondulin.

Needs for finishing the stove

The walls of the stove, built of good bricks, and even decorated on the outside, it is not necessary to finish: white and plaster. If there are no chips and cracks in the masonry elements and the verticals and horizontals were respected during construction, the heating structure will look great as it is.

For a stove masonry made of quality bricks, it is enough to perform grouting and carefully expand the joints. Without extra finishing, the heating and cooking structure looks better.

If the furnace walls still have a complaint, there are defects on them, and the masonry is not perfect, then finishing is very necessary. Before making the finishing work, the outer surface is thoroughly swabbed, grouted with a piece of brick to improve adhesion, then wait for it to dry.

Dried unit can be plastered, using the clay-sand mortar used in masonry. To increase strength, 1% asbestos crumb may be added to the composition. Heating versions of stoves are tiled - this is the most reliable and gas-tight, but also the most time-consuming type of finish.

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Whitewashing is

Combining whitewashing with tiling

Budget cladding with common tiles

Luxury cladding with spectacular tiles

Probable complications for the stove-maker

The location of the stove is usually planned in advance in a typical country house project, chimney outlet, convenient places for maintenance and operation. It is much more difficult to arrange a heating and cooking unit in a house built according to an individual idea. It is even more difficult if the house is already built.

It happens that after choosing a successful, in the opinion of the owner, the location of the furnace, and even after the construction of the foundation, suddenly discovered that the chimney will cross the floor beam or rafters. How to act in such a situation?

The way out in this case involves two difficult and rather expensive options. In the first case, you will have to rebuild the ceiling and change the position of beams and rafters, in the second - to destroy and rebuild the foundation of the stove.

In order to avoid such troubles, before marking and constructing the foundation in the built house, you should determine whether the chimney will not violate the integrity of existing structures. If there is an opportunity and access to not yet sheathed beams, you must plumb to check the exact position of the components marked out furnace.

If you build with their own hands brick oven is most convenient to put it in a place whose projection crosses the elements of the roof system, it is better to displace them. In general, of all the options, it is desirable to choose the one that will be easier and cheaper to implement.

The following rules should be considered in designing the furnace and selecting a suitable model:

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Multifunctional brick stove

Differences in size and heat capacity

Position of units near solid walls

Heating adjacent rooms with one stove

Big brick stove in the middle of room

Big brick stove in the middle of the room

Location of stove near outer wall

Distance between wall and Chimney

Laying a simplified version of a Russian stove

Let's take a concrete example of the specifics of building a simplified version of a Russian stove. Like all units of this category, it belongs to the cooking and heating equipment, which means that it is equipped with a cast-iron hob. It also has two fuelpans, which allows heating the room, cooking delicious meals and baking bread.

Peculiarity of this particular design is the presence of a specific ash collector, located under the carbon sink. The ash is collected through a brick channel under the grate. The ash collector can be emptied from the street, so that the house will not be contaminated by the traditional stoves.

In order to extend the metal ash box to the street, a channel is made in the house foundation, which is connected to the stove foundation. This construction should be located under the floor. From the outside all this is closed with an insulated damper.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

This construction of the Russian stove has an external ash collector emptied from the street, there is a compartment for the accumulation of carbon monoxide and a place for baking bread

Unique design of stove foundation

Foundation for this version of the stove is also special. It is built as follows. Under the foundation, the ground is selected for 85 cm. The width of the excavation should be convenient for the foundation. The bottom of the excavation is filled with sand and compacted so that as a result, the layer of sand is 10 cm.

On the levelled base, a metal case is installed, in which 4 rows of brickwork on cement mortar are laid. At a depth of 12 cm to the floor level waterproofing is laid, from which the carbon dioxide removal is built: a hollow foundation. This part of the construction is plastered so that one can immediately identify cracks - places of gas leakage.

This solution allows to close the chimney vent immediately after the heating, because carbon monoxide will be discharged into the hollow foundation without entering the premises. As a result, the thermal performance of the unit is significantly improved. The ash is removed periodically from the metal box for its collection put outdoors.

The channel for the ash collector is built of bricks simultaneously with the construction of the furnace foundation. Metal corners are installed for its formation. Bring the channel to the hole made at the same level in the foundation of the house.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

The choice of a specific stove design and its corresponding masonry arrangement makes it possible to calculate the exact material costs for the construction of the unit

Masonry arrangement in detail

The size of the simplified brick stove shown in the plans is 77×116 cm, which is 3 bricks in width and 4.5 bricks in length. From the floor level this stove is laid in a metal frame welded from a corner, or in a solid case of tin.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

With the masonry of the starting rows of the simplified Russian stove, a channel is made to remove the ash from the outside of the house foundation

The following diagram shows 10 rows of the stove. After laying the 4th row, a metal corner is placed on the walls of the stove to form a channel. Before laying the 7th row an asbestos sheet is laid. After laying the 7th row, the formed duct is lined with sheet metal.

The construction of the heater from the 5th to the 13th row consists of the construction of the carbon monoxide outlet. In the 8th row, the metal strips are placed again. In the 9th, 11th and 13th rows the bricks are placed in reverse.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

The masonry diagrams are designed for the correct construction of the brick oven. These plans show the order of construction from the 11th to the 25th row and the installation of the hob

After the 14th row, the oven under construction is usually level with the floor but sometimes, in order to reach the floor level, you have to put another row. The floor around the stove is lined with sheet steel.

From the 15th row, i.e. approximately from the level of the field, the brickwork is again placed in a metal case or a frame made of angle. In the 16th, a damper is mounted, which is needed to drain and collect the ash. The front of the stove above this damper will have to be lined with metal.

Steel strips are laid to secure the ash door in the 17th and 18th rows. In the 18th the ash-pan door overlap is made.

In the 19th row the corners are placed in the masonry, on which the retractable grate will rest. Through it the ash will be led through the channel to the metal box for its collection.

\"Under\", the base of the main furnace of the Russian stove, is laid of heat-resistant bricks. In the 20th row a metal frame is placed with a door for cleaning the stove. Above the 22nd row the metal strips are placed again.

The 23rd row is masoned with refractory bricks. At the back of the unit the masonry is made in 3 bricks set on the rib and 1/8 bricks set flat.

For the 23rd row a cast iron hob is fixed, the dimensions of which are 71×41 cm. In this row, it is recommended to reinforce with a steel strip. The 24th row is laid flat.

Masonry from the 25th row is again made of refractory bricks, which are placed on the rib. Now a blank door with dimensions of 25×21 cm is installed. It serves as a damper in the standard Russian stove.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

The stove masonry manual is an excellent help for beginners and experienced masons not familiar with this construction

In the left back corner of the 26th row bricks are placed on the rib to form the chimney. All others in the said row are laid flat and the masonry is reinforced with steel strips. The bricks laid flat have the inner edge of the lower rib shaved off.

At the level of the 26th row, the metal plates intended for baking bread are placed. There should be 3 of them in the oven, taking into account the gaps between the walls of the unit and these trays.

The middle and right metal plates are equal in length to the size of the oven. The left one is shorter by exactly the same length as the one formed in row 26. To prevent the left short sheet from sagging, it is clamped at the far corner to the middle counter.

In the 27th row, all the bricks are laid flat. Before constructing the 28th row, a base of bricks is built in the compartment for baking bread. This will support the slab.

In the 28th row, the gable part of the stove and the left rear corner, where the chimney is formed, are laid with bricks placed on the rib. The front of the unit is reinforced with a steel plate. The rest of the space is filled with bricks laid flat.

Then completely two rows, this 29 and 30, are built of bricks set on the rib. In the 31st row a cleaning hole is formed. This hole is also reinforced with a steel strip, as is the norm.

At the level of the 33rd row, the flat bricks between the chimneys are used to make the lintels. They are lowered by half relative to the bricks set on the rib. In the 34th row, a steam damper and a chimney sweep are placed. Again in this row, reinforcement with a metal strip is carried out.

Masonry furnace with their own hands: a step by step guide, rowing, diagrams and drawings

The lines from the 36th to the 40th row show how the transition from the top of the Russian stove to the chimney is made

In the 35th row again all bricks are placed ribbed when laying the gable part. All other bricks are laid flat. In the 36th and 37th rows all elements are laid flat. To increase the cross-section of the chimney to optimize the movement of gases, the bottom inner edge of the bricks of the 37th row shall be mitred around it.

After the branch pipe is laid, it is assembled of 5 bricks laid flat. This shall be connected by linking it with the 31st row. The 38th row should be the penultimate row. The 39th row pressed a sheet of asbestos to the ceiling. This is an insulating gasket.

From the 39th row the chimney is laid with bricks. To speed up the construction process it is acceptable to use concrete or ceramic blocks.

Traditional metal appliances are used in the arrangement of heating and cooking stoves:

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Brick stove pipe slide

Cast iron door with Brick oven hatch

Brick oven air vent door

Brick oven grate

Flue vent doors for cleaning the flue ducts

Cupboard for the hob

Oven for the cooking units

Water box for outdoor installation

Hob appliances are essential for proper operation of the unit. They ensure the quick ignition of the stove, the adjustment of the heat output, the closing of the technological openings and the cleaning of the channels from combustion products.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

A visual demonstration of the brick stove will help you get the hang of the process:

Brick stove construction is hardly called an easy matter, but it is quite accessible for self execution. Guided by our presented manual and poryadovki, you can build a perfectly working stove with your own hands. Information about the general rules of construction of heating and cooking units will help to control the work of hired stovesmen.

If you have experience in masonry brick stoves, please share it with our readers. Perhaps you know some subtleties that we have not mentioned in this material? Leave your comments in the feedback box below.

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