It is almost a necessity for owners of country properties to have an autonomous water heating system. After all, what kind of comfort can we talk about if there is no hot water in the house? Electric devices for water heating are extremely popular in organization of an autonomous water supply for a private house.
Such devices can also be used in apartments, so there are no problems with hot water. They cost a lot, so the installation of a storage water heater with your own hands will allow you to significantly reduce costs.
In this material we will talk about the rules of installation of these devices. We will tell you how they work and what you need to know before starting the installation. Also in the article you will find diagrams that allow you to correctly perform the installation of the storage water heater. For the sake of clarity the article contains video clips with tips on how to install the heaters.
The contents of the article:
- How does it work?
- How to install such heaters
- Wiring to the water system
- Water heater and autonomous water supply
- Electrical part of installation
- Conclusions and useful video on the subject
How does it work?
Electric storage-type water heaters are arranged quite simply. Usually, such an appliance is a container with a heating element - a powerful heating element - inside. Since the device is designed to store hot water, it is necessarily insulated.
There are two pipes built inside: one of them takes cold water from the water supply system, the second on the DHW circuit heated to a certain temperature flow. An automatic control unit is used to regulate the operation of the appliance.
The specific characteristics of storage water heaters
The energy consumption of the electric heating models
The average requirements of an electric Water heater
Boiler versions for storage water heaters
Connection of the water heater to the boiler
The principle of storage of the heat obtained during heating
How the storage water heaters work
This device controls the water intake, the temperature of the water to be heated and switches the heating elements on and off as required. Also the control unit is equipped with an automatic power cut-off module in case there is no water inside the tank.
It is unacceptable to switch on the heater if the heating element is not covered by water, this situation will lead to a quick breakdown of the device.
And you can read about how to choose a storage water heater and not to miscalculate the choice in this article.
This scheme clearly demonstrates the principle of operation of a storage water heater, as well as the general order of its connection to the water supply system in the apartment
The order of installation of such heaters
The simple construction ensures the exceptional reliability of storage water heaters. It is not too difficult to install such a device, but a number of important nuances must be taken into account.
First, it is necessary to choose the place where the heater will be installed. After that perform its installation, as well as connection to the water system and power supply.
For domestic needs, most often use relatively small wall-mounted models. They are hung on special brackets. Two brackets are used for the vertical model and four are needed for the horizontal model.
The procedure for fixing the brackets to the wall is simple, usually using suitable self-tapping screws and a screwdriver.
The diagram clearly shows the recommendations and standards for hanging a storage water heater on the wall. Unreliable or incorrect fasteners can cause the unit to collapse
There must be a distance of 180 mm between the brackets on which the vertical models of water heaters are mounted. Hinged brackets are used to mount horizontal models.
The distance between the protective cover and the surfaces of other objects must be kept at least 300 mm for devices with a capacity of up to 80 l, and at least 500 mm for heaters with a capacity of 100-200 l.
Do not install an upright model in a horizontal position or, conversely, place an upright heater on its side. This is a gross violation of the operating and safety conditions of the appliance, which can lead not only to a breakdown of the equipment, but also to a dangerous accident.
With a level, check the correct position of the individual brackets relative to each other. As for the place of installation of the water heater, it is recommended to choose it as close as possible to the hot water outlets.
This will allow to deliver hot water to the consumer faster, i.e. reduce heat losses during transportation.
Wall models of storage water heaters are mostly used for domestic needs. All models of such devices have a laconic and attractive design
Inexperienced masters sometimes make the mistake of attaching brackets to plasterboard partitions. The load-bearing capacity of such structures is too low to support the weight of the device.
Even if the water heater installed in this way does not collapse immediately, this may occur after it has been filled with water.
A separate case is the installation of a storage water heater on a plaster wall, behind which there is a supporting wall. In this case, special fasteners of sufficient length should be used so that they pass through the false wall and sink into the thickness of the supporting structure, which will take the brunt of the load.
Accidentally, the place where the storage heater is installed must be accessible for maintenance, adjustment of settings, repairs, etc. The design of such appliances is usually attractive enough, so there should be no problems in the area of combination with other interior items.
Certainly, before starting installation work, the manufacturer's instructions should be studied in order to take into account the recommendations contained in this document.
If the storage water heater is installed in an apartment of a multistory house, if it breaks down there is a risk of flooding the rooms that are located on the floor below. Therefore it is recommended to waterproof the room before installing the appliance.
Sphere of application for storage water heaters
Protecting the equipment against water
Guidelines selection of an electric storage tank
Use small storage tanks
An alternative option to protect against this nuisance can be a special tray A special tray equipped with a waste outlet and connected to the sewage system can be an alternative.
If the house has an automated leak protection system, it makes sense to install one of the sensors directly under the water heater. This will not completely prevent flooding, but it will help minimize damage.
Since it is recommended to place the storage water heater as close as possible to the hot water intake points, make sure that the device is sufficiently protected against moisture.
If the heater is located near a sink, washbasin or bath, splashing on the body surface is almost inevitable. More serious contact with water is also possible, which poses a danger to any electrical appliance.
Before you install a storage water heater in the apartment, you should pay attention to the marking of the device. The ability of the device to withstand external exposure is reflected by a special index IPXX, where XX - numbers.
The values of the first index of the IP protection index:
- 0 - no protection;
- 1 - protection against large objects (larger than 50 mm);
- 2 - protection against medium-sized objects (larger than 12.5 mm);
- 3 - protection against small objects (larger than 2.5 mm);
- 4 - protection against small objects (larger than 1 mm);
- 5 - protection against dust;
- 6 - absolute tightness.
The first digit of the index reflects the resistance of the appliance against contact with foreign objects. The second digit indicates the degree of protection of the appliance against moisture.
The values of the first index of the IP protection index:
- 0 - no protection;
- 1 - there is protection against vertically directed drops;
- 2 - protection against drops falling at an angle not more than 15 degrees from vertical;
- 3 - protection against rain drops and splashes at an angle not more than 60 degrees from vertical;
- 4 - splash protection in any direction;
- 5 - jet protection;
- 6 - protection against strong jets and sea waves;
- 7 - short-term submersion of the unit to a depth of one meter or less is permitted;
- 8 - unit can be submerged to a depth of one meter for up to half an hour.
This information will allow you to evaluate the operating conditions of the water heater from a safety point of view. This information will also be useful for the installation of other appliances.
Most storage water heaters do not require an excessively high degree of protection, e.g. for operation under water. Most often such appliances are marked as IP25. This level is quite possible in the home.
Connection to the water system
The drain port of heaters of this type, regardless of the model, is usually at the bottom. First the so-called safety group must be assembled and installed. This is a set of valves and fittings designed to prevent various emergencies that may occur during operation of the appliance.
The top is fitted with an adapter, often called an \"American\". Next, a bronze tee is screwed on. A non-return valve is attached to its lower part, which prevents water from pouring back into the water system. Another tee is connected to the side branch of the tee.
The diagram shows in detail the connection of the storage tank: hot and cold water risers, water taps (1 and 2); shut-off valves (3 and 4); non return valve (5); drain valve (6)
A 6 bar safety valve is fitted to allow an automatic pressure decrease inside the tank if it reaches a critical level.
A special compression fitting for the water pipe is connected to the same tee. This will drain part of the water from the storage tank to the sewer if there is excess pressure.
Scheme of the safety group of the storage water heater. This set of devices prevents dangerous emptying of the appliance tank and removes excess water if the pressure inside exceeds the norm
After installing the appliance, make sure that the pressure valve hole remains open, otherwise the device simply will not work.
All threaded connections should be sealed and sealed. Experts recommend allowing at least four hours for the sealant to dry.
The photo illustrates and signs the elements of the safety group of the storage water heater. When installing the device, it is important to follow the exact sequence of their connection
Steel, copper, plastic or metal-plastic pipes can be used to connect the device to the cold water riser. When doing the installation yourself, plastic pipes are most often used, as it is relatively easy to solder them.
Some people use flexible hoses for this purpose, but this solution does not justify itself. As practice has shown, such elements wear out quickly.
The individual elements of the safety group of the storage water heater are connected by means of threads. According to the standards, these places should be sealed and treated with sealant
It is clear that the hot and cold water coming into the apartment should be shut off before the pipes are tapped. A shut-off valve should be installed between the cold water riser and the heater so that the water flowing to the unit can be shut off if necessary. All connections are carefully sealed.
Now another pipe must be connected to connect the heater to the hot water system in the apartment. At this point another shut-off valve is required: between the hot water riser and the heater.
This valve must always be shut off to prevent heated water from the boiler from flowing into the common hot riser of the house. Again, make sure all connections are sealed and sealed.
The cold water shut-off valve between the heating appliance and the risers should be installed so that when closed it does not obstruct the flow of water to other consumers, cutting off only the heater.
A connection to the hot water system should be made so that the flow of hot water from the common riser to the system in the apartment can be restored if necessary.
There is a connection to the water system which may be considered complete. Some experts at this stage recommend a preliminary test: fill the tank with water, and then drain it and see if there are any leaks. Such a check can only be done after the sealant is completely dry on all connections.
Water heater and autonomous water supply
Private households usually do not use centralized, but autonomous water supply. In such a situation, the use of a storage water heater is justified and possible. But the connection scheme must be slightly modified. The water source in such a case is normally a tank installed in the attic or on the upper floor.
This diagram shows the particularities of the connection of a storage tank to an autonomous water system, if the vertical distance between the heating device and the water tank is less than two metres
The vertical distance between this tank and the water heater must be measured. If it is less than two meters, a tee is installed at the outlet of the tank to take some of the cold water to the heating device so that the pipe is above the level at which the heater is installed. A tee with a check valve and a drain outlet shall be installed at the inlet of the cold water pipe to the device.
If the vertical distance from the water tank to the heater exceeds two meters, the outlet shall be lower than the level at which the heater is installed. In this case a T-piece with an outlet of excess water to the sewage system is installed at the cold water inlet of the device, and a return valve is connected just below.
This scheme demonstrates the connection option of a storage water heater in a house with a separate water supply system, if the vertical distance between the tank and the heater is over two metres
Water pressure in the separate house system should be measured before installing the water heater. If it exceeds the level of six bar, it is necessary to supplement the installation scheme with a special reducing reducer. Excessively high water pressure entering the heater may cause the equipment to break.
Electrical part of installation
Connecting the storage water heater to the power supply seems a very simple task, since you just need to plug the device into the socket. Household heaters are usually designed for a standard voltage of 220V.
But anyone who is even slightly familiar with the workings of electrical networks realizes that for such powerful devices an ordinary socket may be completely unsuitable.
First, you should assess the condition of the wiring in the apartment or house and find out what the maximum load it is designed for. Connecting several high power appliances to the same line at the same time can be fatal for the system.
For example, if the heater and a household electric stove/automatic washing machine are turned on at the same time, the wiring could burn out, cause a fire, etc.
It is safer and more reliable to run a separate cable for the water heater from the electric panel. The most important factor in this situation is the cross-section of the electric cable. The minimum cross-section of the cable can be calculated using special tables.
The operating voltage, phases, material of which the cable is made, whether the wiring will be concealed, etc. should be taken into account. Two-core copper or aluminium cable, 220 V voltage, one phase are generally used for water heaters.
If the heater is installed in a room with high humidity (bathroom, kitchen, etc.), special moisture-proof sockets must be used.
In addition, for two-phase boilers it is almost always necessary to install a RCD - protective disconnection device. The cable must also be protected against moisture as well as strong and sufficiently flexible.
Most often storage water heaters are installed in places with high humidity, such as the bathroom. Here it is necessary to use special moisture-proof sockets
No need to save on cable by buying products of dubious quality. In addition, take electric cable to connect the storage heater must be with a sufficient reserve. The wire should not be under tension.
Cable markings should be studied carefully before connection. Inexperienced beginners sometimes get confused and connect the phase to a ground loop.
If there is no experience in electrical work, it makes sense to consult an experienced electrician or have him perform this stage of the water heater installation.
It is mandatory to take care of the heater grounding. A piece of metal wire may be used for this purpose, one end of which is fastened to the body of the heater and the other end connected to a grounding circuit.
Conclusion and useful video on the subject
How to install a storage water heater is described here:
This video contains some useful tips for installing storage water heaters:
Storage water heaters are popular and reliable, they provide hot water in the right quantity for the home. Their installation is not that difficult, but you need to clearly follow the manufacturer's recommendations and safety precautions.
If you have the necessary experience or knowledge on the installation of storage water heaters, please share it with our readers. Leave your comments at the bottom of the article. There you can also ask questions on the subject of the article.