Impulse Relay For Lighting Control: Types, Marking And Connection

Complicated electrification systems are used to meet the modern lighting requirements of apartments, offices and businesses. In their design, a range of equipment is used for individual tasks and is constantly being improved.

For example, the pulse relay for controlling lighting from several locations has been used relatively recently. It is gradually replacing the standard circuitry with circuit breakers.

Article content:

  • Where can the impulse relay be used?
  • Building and operating principle
  • Building types, marking and advantages
    • Building types of impulse relays
    • Benefits and drawbacks of the main relay types
    • Basic characteristics
    • Labelling of the products
  • Some types of connection diagrams
  • Conclusions and useful video on the subject

Where can the impulse relays be used?

The introduction of this device into domestic use is due to simple convenience. After all, it allows you to control the lighting from at least two points.

In an apartment this could be the bedroom, where switching on happened at the entrance and switching off next to the bed. In offices these are long corridors, flights of stairs and large conference rooms.

Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

The use of two switches for staircase lighting has become a necessity. After turning on the light on the first floor, it is quite logical to turn it off with a second switch at the top

The three-position control can be overcome by feed-through switches and cross-over switches. This scheme is still widely used today. But it has some obvious shortcomings.

First of all, it is a rather complicated system to install, in which the electricity travels through the main circuit breaker, the junction box, the switches themselves and then to the light bulbs. Installation errors are not uncommon. If more than three control places are needed, the circuit becomes more complicated.

Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

The diagram clearly shows the overload of wires: five cables from the first switch, six from the second, three each from the first and second lights

Second, all wires have the same cross section, as they use the same voltage current, which affects the total cost. They also include the price of feed-through switches, several times the cost of conventional ones.

But the need for a pulse relay is not only for comfort reasons. It is also used for signaling and protection.

In an industrial plant, for example, to start production processes that require high electrical power, this device allows the operator to be safe. As it operates with low voltage currents or is controlled remotely at all.

Building and operation

In a general sense, a relay is an electrical mechanism that closes or breaks an electrical circuit based on certain electrical or other parameters that affect it.

His non-switching design was invented back in 1831 by John Henry. And two years later began to be used to make the S. Morse telegraph work.

We can distinguish two main groups: electromechanical and electronic. In the first type of device mechanism performs the work, and in the second for everything is responsible printed circuit board with a microcontroller. The electromechanical relay is a pulse type relay.

Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

Frequency of switching, the type and magnitude of current, the nature of the loads

It can be represented structurally as follows:

  1. Coilis a copper wire wound on a base of non-magnetic material. It may be in fabric insulation or covered with a varnish that does not let electricity through.
  2. Corecontaining iron and actuated by the passage of electric current through the coils of the coil.
  3. The moving armatureis a plate which is attached to the armature and exerts an effect on the closing contacts.
  4. Contact systemis directly a circuit state switch.

The relay is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic force. It appears in the ferromagnetic core of the coil when a current is run through it. The coil in this case is the retracting device.

The core is connected to a movable armature which actuates the power contacts to make the switching action. They can be of the normally open/normally closed type. Sometimes the contact block may contain simultaneously open and closed types of connection.

Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

When the circuit is switched on, the mechanism locks this position, which changes when the pulse is applied again and locks again until the next change

A resistor may be additionally connected to the coil to increase the switching accuracy, and a solid state diode to limit the overvoltage on the winding. In addition, a capacitor placed in parallel with the contacts may be present to reduce sparking.

The operation of the device can be better understood by dividing it into several blocks:

  • executing - this is the contact group that closes/opens the electrical circuit;
  • intermediate - the coil, core and moving armature engage the executing unit;
  • controlling - in this relay converts the electrical signal into a magnetic field.

Since a single electrical impulse is required to switch the contact position, it can be concluded that these devices consume voltage only at the moment of switching. This saves a great deal of energy, in contrast to conventional feed-through switches.

The second type of pulse relay is the electronic type. A microcontroller is responsible for its operation. The intermediate unit here is a coil or semiconductor key. The use in the circuit of elements such as programmable logic controllers makes it possible to supplement the relay with a timer, for example.

Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

There are no mechanical moving elements in this type of device. The operation is performed by a sensor that recognizes the control signal and a solid-state electronics that switches the circuit

Brands, marking and advantages

The main types of impulse relays are electromechanical and electronic. Electromechanical relays are in turn classified according to their operating principle.

Variants of impulse devices

This means that the switching of power contacts can be accomplished by forces other than the force of a magnet.

These are divided into:

  • electromagnetic;
  • inductive;
  • magneto-electric;
  • electrodynamic. They are sufficiently reliable due to the simple method of operation based on the action of electromagnetic forces in a ferromagnetic core, provided there is current in the coil.

    The contacts of electromagnetic relays are actuated by a frame which is attracted in one position by the core and returned to the other by a spring.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    The anchor, that is a plate with magnetic properties, is attracted by the electromagnet, which is a copper wire wound on a coil with a yoke

    Inductive have an operating principle based on the contact of currents - AC with induced magnetic currents with the currents themselves. This interaction creates a torque which drives a copper disk placed between two electromagnets. As it rotates, it closes and opens contacts.

    Magnetoelectric devices are operated by the interaction of the current in the turning frame with the magnetic field created by the permanent magnet. Contact making/breaking is controlled by its rotation.

    Relative to its type, such relays are very sensitive. However, they have not become widespread because of the 0.1-0.2 s actuation time, which is considered long.

    Electrodynamic relays operate by means of the force generated between a moving and a stationary current coil. The method of closing the contacts is the same as in a magnetoelectric device. The only difference is that the induction in the working gap is created electromagnetically.

    Electronic models are structurally almost the same as electromechanical models. They have the same blocks: the executive, the intermediate and the control. The only difference is in the last one. The switching control is performed by a semiconductor diode as part of the microcontroller on the printed circuit board.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    The semiconductors in this device are transistors and thyristors. Although they can withstand difficult dust and vibration conditions, they are subject to short current and voltage overloads

    This type of relay is equipped with additional modules. For example, a timer allows you to execute a program to control the lighting at a set interval of time. This is convenient for saving electricity when the equipment is not needed. If necessary, the lights can be switched off with a double push of a button.

    Benefits and drawbacks of the main relay types

    Differs from solid-state switches, the electromechanical switches have the following advantages:

    1. Relatively low cost due to low-cost components.
    2. A little heat is generated at the switching contacts due to a small voltage drop.
    3. Powerful insulation of 5 kV between coil and contact group.
    4. No harmful effect from overvoltage surges, lightning interference, switching processes of powerful electrical installations.
    5. Controls lines with loads up to 0.4 kV with a small volume device.

    A circuit closure with a current of 10 A in a small volume relay distributes less than 0.5 W across the coil. Whereas, on electronic counterparts, this figure can be more than 15 W. This ensures that there is no cooling problem and no harm to the atmosphere.

    The disadvantages of these devices are:

    1. Wear and problems when switching inductive loads and high DC voltages.
    2. Turning the circuit on and off is accompanied by radio interference generation. This requires the installation of shielding or increasing the distance to the interfering equipment.
    3. Relatively long switching times.

    Another disadvantage is the continuous mechanical and electrical wear during switching. These include oxidation of the contacts and their damage from spark discharges, deformation of the spring units.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    When mounting, it is worth bearing in mind that the electromechanical version of contactors may not work correctly if placed in a horizontal position

    Unlike electromechanical ones, electronic relays control the intermediate unit by means of a microcontroller.

    The advantages and disadvantages of the electronics can be explained on the example of F&F in relation to the ABB brand, which produces the mechanics.

    The advantages of the first type of switches are:

    • great safety;
    • high speed switching;
    • availability on the market;
    • indication of the operating mode;
    • extended functionality;
    • quiet operation.

    In addition, the indisputable advantage is the multiple mounting options - not only on the DIN-rail of the panel, but also in the sockets.

    Disadvantages of the F&F electronics in comparison with the ABB mechanics:

    • malfunction during power failures;
    • overheating when switching high currents;
    • possible \"glitches\" for no apparent reason;
    • disabling the device when the mains voltage is briefly turned off;
    • high resistance in the closed position;
    • some relays only work on direct current;
    • semiconductor circuit does not immediately pass current back to the normal direction.

    Despite the above disadvantages, electronic switches are constantly evolving and due to their greater functional potential relative to electromechanical ones, their predominant use is expected.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    To avoid confusion, the manufacturer gives the most detailed product characteristics in the store catalogs and in the device datasheet

    Main characteristic parameters

    Depending on the purpose and application, the relays can be classified in several ways:

    • return factorthe ratio of the armature output current value to the retraction current;
    • retraction currentthe maximum value thereof at the coil terminals when the armature is released;
    • retraction currentthe minimum value thereof at the coil terminals when the armature returns to the home position;
    • setpoint - level of tripping value within the set limits set in the relay;
    • triggering value - value of the input signal to which the unit automatically responds;
    • setpoints - voltage, current and other values underlying relay action.

    Also, electromagnetic devices can be divided by response time. The longest delay is at the time relays - more than 1 second, with the possibility to set this parameter. Then come the delayed ones - 0.15 sec, the normal ones - 0.05 sec, the fast ones - 0.05 sec. And the fastest inertia free types, under 0.001 sec.

    Product marking decoding

    The contactor marking number can often be found in store catalogs and on the unit itself. It gives a complete description of the design features, purpose and conditions of use.

    The designation can be discerned on the electromagnetic intermediate relay REP-26. It is used in AC circuits up to 380 V and DC circuits up to 220 V.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    To understand the marking it is necessary to break down the inscription into blocks and apply the tables-descriptions which can be found in specialized reference books

    This is how the product marking can look in the store: REP 26-004A526042-40UKHL4. This type of designation can be parsed as follows:

    • 26 - series number;
    • XX - type of contacts and their number;
    • X - switching wear resistance class;
    • X - type of switching coil, relay return type and current type;
    • X - design by installation and conductor connection;
    • XX - coil current or voltage value;
    • X - additional design elements;
    • 40 - IP or GOST14254 protection level;
    • X4 - climatic zone of application according to GOST 15150.

    Climatic version may be: UHL - for cold and temperate climate or O - for tropical climate or general climatic version.

    According to special designation tables, the device in question is an electromagnetic intermediate relay, with four switching contacts, switching resistance class A, using direct current. It has a socket mount with lamellas for soldering external conductors, a 24 V coil and a manual arm.

    Some types of wiring diagrams

    There are several mounting options, each with its own characteristics, advantages and disadvantages.

    The contact designation of the RIO-1 relay has the following decoding:

    • N - neutral wire;
    • Y1 - on input;
    • Y2 - off input;
    • Y - on and off input;
    • 11-14 - switch contacts of normally open type.

    These symbols are used on most relay models, but you should consult the product data sheet before connecting them to the circuit.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    The wiring diagram shown here is used to control lights from three places by relays and three pushbuttons without latching

    The relay power contacts use 16A current. The control and lighting circuits are protected by a 10A circuit breaker. The wires must therefore have a diameter of at least 1.5mm2.

    The connection of the pushbuttons is made in parallel. The red wire is the phase, goes through all three pushbuttons to the power contact 11. The orange wire is the switching phase, comes to the input Y. Then it comes out of terminal 14 and goes to the bulbs. The neutral wire from the bus connects to terminal N and to the lights.

    If the light was originally on, pressing any switch will turn the light off - the phase conductor to terminal Y will momentarily switch and pins 11-14 will open. The same thing will happen when any other switch is pressed again. But contacts 11-14 will change position and the light will come on.

    The advantage of this circuit over feed-through and crossover switches is obvious. However, in the case of a short-circuit, the fault could be difficult to detect, contrary to the following alternative.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    This arrangement saves on wiring, since the cross section of the control cables can be reduced to 0,5 mm2. However, a second protector would have to be purchased

    This is a less common connection. It is the same as the previous one, but the control and lighting circuits have their own 6A and 10A circuit breakers respectively. This makes it easier to diagnose faults.

    If it is necessary to control several groups of lights with one relay, the circuit is slightly modified.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    This connection method is convenient to use to turn the lights on and off in whole groups. For example to switch off a chandelier on multiple levels or to switch off the lighting of all the workplaces in a hall at once

    Another variant to use the pulse relays is the centrally controlled system.

    Impulse relay for lighting control: types, marking and connection

    The circuit is convenient in that you can switch off all the lights with one button when you leave home. And when you return, turn it on in the same way

    Two switches are added to this circuit to close and open the circuit. The first button can only turn on the lighting group. This will bring the phase from the ON/OFF switch to the Y1 terminal of each relay and contacts 11-14 will close.

    The open switch operates in the same way as the first switch. But it switches to the Y2 terminal of each switch and its contacts take the opening position of the circuit.

    Conclusions and useful video on the subject

    The video explains the construction, operation, application and history of this type of device:

    The following subject describes in detail the operation of solid state or electronic relays:

    The use of switching relays is becoming increasingly common in modern electrification systems. Increasing demands for functionality and flexibility in lighting control, material savings and safety create a continuous impetus for the improvement of contactors.

    They are reduced in size, simplified structurally, increasing reliability. And the use of radical new technologies in their operation allows them to be used in harsh environments of dusty production, vibration, magnetic fields and humidity.

    Please write your comments in the box below. Ask questions, share useful information about the topic of the article that will be helpful to the visitors of the site. Tell us about how you chose and installed the impulse switch.

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