Most owners of country houses install a Russian bathhouse or sauna on their property. But in order for it to perform its functions and serve not only for water procedures, but also for health improvement, it is important to insulate it properly. Usually the method chosen at the stage of design of the building. But it is possible to carry out insulation of the bath when it will be ready. To do the work, you should familiarize yourself with the materials used for insulation, as well as the technology of their installation.
The contents of the article:
- Why you need thermal insulation in the bath
- Benefits of internal insulation
- Peculiarities of materials for thermal protection
- Materials for insulation
- Polystyrene foam
- Stiff foil-lined polyurethane foam
- Wool wool
- Jute felt
- What kind of insulation is better for a brick and wood and concrete bath
- insulating a wooden wall in the steam room
- LOGICPIR Bath by TECHNONICOL: Product characteristics
- How to insulate bath walls with LOGICPIR slabs from TECHNONIKOL
- Materials and tools for work
- Preparing bath walls for installation of thermal insulation slabs
- Installing a thermal insulation layer and using LOGICPIR Bath slabs from Installation of thermal insulation in the sauna
- System of continuous thermal insulation contour
- Additional waterproofing of the sauna rooms
- Positioning of decorative covering in the sauna
Why thermal insulation in the sauna
Any bath is heated by boiler or stove. But their work will be ineffective if you do not create insulation. This is a mandatory step. Even the low thermal conductivity of wood that is used for building such buildings more often does not allow creating the optimal heat protection.
If the bath is built of wall blocks, then the approach is a bit different. Create thermal protection both outside and inside. On the outside usually form a wooden cladding, under which heat insulation is placed. In addition, in addition need to take care of insulation is not only the walls, but also the ceiling, floor and even foundation. Then it is possible to achieve the desired \"thermal\" conditions.
Benefits of internal insulation
Well insulated bath houses have a number of advantages:
- the room warms up faster, does not cool down for a long time;
- the heat is consumed minimally;
- the possibility of controlling the level of humidity;
- heating costs are reduced, as heat losses are reduced;
- the life of the building increases;
- the desired microclimate inside the bath complex is achieved;
- the minimum risk of mold, fungi development.
But to achieve all this, it is important to choose thermal insulation materials.
Peculiarities of thermal protection materials
The bath is a room with high temperature and humidity. Therefore ordinary materials are not suitable here.
The air in the steam room and washing room will always be humid. In the anteroom too. For insulation here is better to use not usual hygroscopic insulation, but variants with water and vapor barrier.
Temperature in the steam room can exceed 100 degrees. In this room, you can not install foam plastic or extruded polystyrene, as when heated they release toxic substances that are harmful to health. Therefore, plastic panels or linoleum in the steam room - it is taboo.
Part of the heat energy at constantly high temperature is lost during heat exchange. To reduce these losses, it is worth using foil-lined material for insulating the sauna or to additionally provide for fixing a reflective foil layer when designing the thermal insulation scheme.
Materials for thermal insulation
The thermal insulation material is the main component you need to insulate the walls, floor and ceiling of the sauna. There are many kinds of insulators, but not all of them can be used in rooms with high temperature and humidity. When choosing a particular option, it is based on its technical characteristics and operating conditions.
Polystyrene is produced according to GOST 15588-2014 (foam polystyrene thermal insulation boards). The material has good thermal insulation characteristics, it is inexpensive and lightweight. But still it is not used for internal insulation of baths due to the fact that it is capable of releasing toxic substances when heated. It is acceptable to use the material for external cladding of the anteroom.
Rigid polyurethane foam with foil lining
Stiff polyurethane foam is produced according to GOST R 56590-2015 (EN 13165-2012). Unlike the sprayed version, it can be used to insulate the steam room and adjacent rooms. This is possible due to the presence of foil lining. It prevents vapour penetration into the building envelope and protects against overheating and fire.
LOGICPIR Bath from TECHNONIKOL is one of the most reliable materials used for insulating baths built from any material as it is an improved modification of polyurethane - PIR. Even a person with minimal knowledge in the field of construction can cope with the installation. Due to its technical characteristics, LOGICPIR Bath fully performs its functions - does not let the steam in and reflects the heat. As a result the desired temperature in the sauna is retained for a long time.
The basis of the material is inorganic glass strands woven together. It allows for the creation of air interlayers and pockets inside the material that do not let the heat escape through the insulation. Glass wool is produced according to GOST 19170-2001.
The material is sold in the form of rolls or plates. The choice of a particular type depends on many factors, including the area of the room and the skills of the person himself in construction.
The work of insulating with glass wool is done in protective clothing. This material is rarely used to insulate baths or saunas because it reacts poorly to moisture penetration. This means that you need to create another 1 foil layer to insulate it.
Glass wool is suitable for insulating the building from the outside. It is mainly used for thermal insulation of a roof or an attic.
Environmental, fireproof and durable material. It is rarely used to insulate walls as it takes four times as much expanded clay (min. 50 cm layer) as other materials to provide the required level of thermal insulation.
This material is called winding felt. It is of natural origin as it is made from the fibers of the jute plant. The material has good thermal insulation properties and is able to remove excess moisture.
Jute felt is not strong in structure, but rigid. To strengthen its properties, linen fibers are often added to the composition. It is sold in the form of tape spools.
What kind of insulation is better for a brick, wooden and concrete bath
Before choosing an insulation for a bath it is important to consider what material it is built of. If the sauna is built from a durable wood with a small cross-section of each log element, it will be enough to caulk the cracks well and apply an antimicrobial and antifungal impregnation on the walls. Not superfluous will be treated with waterproofing and fire protection compositions.
Interior insulation of the rooms can be done with basalt wool (technology \"Pie\"). But then an additional layer of foil material would be required. That's why the best option is LOGICPIR Bath from TECHNONIKOL. There is already a foil lining on the closed cell polyisocyanurate boards.
Brick walls freeze quickly in winter. In order to maintain a microclimate inside the bathhouse, an insulation scheme must be carefully planned. There are two options here - either install second walls around the perimeter (with the installation of insulation) of the bath complex, or make the thermal insulation layer double.
For the purlins you should take not metal, but wood, because the first in the operation of the bath is strongly heated. In addition, the entire structure is additionally treated with agents against mold and pathogens. Water-repellent and fire-safe compounds are also used.
Crete baths are insulated from the outside and from the inside. This is necessary to avoid wetting of the masonry during operation. Fixing the insulation in this case is also an additional prevention of rapid destruction of the structure.
Internal wall surfaces are insulated with mineral wool or polyurethane foam with foil lining. Outside, it is shaped like a curtain wall. Mineral wool sheets are also used here, but they are additionally covered with siding or cladding.
Wood wall insulation in the steam room
The process of insulating walls in the steam room is considered quite complicated. Unlike mineral wool, wood reacts negatively to temperature changes. The vapor permeability of a solid oak wood wall is 0.05 mg/m*h*Pa. This is twice as bad as a brick wall.
The outer layer of insulation must have moisture-proof properties. A ventilation gap shall be left between the wooden lining of the steam room and the insulating heat insulation surface. It is needed in order to even out some of the water vapors that have penetrated.
Air and vapor will rise through the vertical gap if the face layer in the insulation system heats them up. That is why rigid LOGICPIR Bath boards from TECHNONIKOL with foil-coated cladding are ideal. The foil reflects about 90% of the heat and transfers it to the steam and hot air. Due to its zero vapour permeability, moisture will not get into the building envelope and will not condense inside it.
LOGICPIR Bath by TECHNONIKOL: Product characteristics
LOGICPIR Bath by TECHNONIKOL is an insulation product made from closed cell rigid polyisocyanurate foam. From the top and bottom is covered with aluminum foil, which provides it with increased sound and thermal insulation properties. The insulation is produced in Russia.
Fundamental characteristics are given in the table.
The edge shape of LOGICPIR Banya by TECHNONIKOL ensures tight joints so the occurrence of gaps is minimized. For improved sealing it is recommended that the seams are sealed with metallized adhesive tape.
Foil-coated PIR boards are highly insulating and can therefore be installed in both dry and humid rooms. LOGICPIR Bath by TECHNONIKOL is a material designed for installation in the steam room, the anteroom and other rooms of sauna complexes.
The material is durable. Its service life is more than 50 years. Over this time it does not lose its properties and does not need to be replaced or treated with any additional substances.
A person with minimal construction knowledge can manage the installation of LOGICPIR Bath by TECHNONIKOL. But before you start you need to study the technology, prepare the tools and materials.
How to insulate the walls of the sauna with LOGICPIR boards from TECHNONIKOL
The first stage is preparatory. It is necessary to measure the area of the room to be insulated in the sauna and on this basis to calculate the number of boards that will be needed. TECHNONIKOL makes boards for sauna complexes with dimensions of 1190 x 590 mm. In the case of large rooms, you can use large-format PIR boards of 2385x1185 mm.
For the exact number of boards that you need to insulate the sauna use the formula:
S total (rooms to be insulated) / S one board
The result must be divided by the number of LOGICPIR Bath insulation boards from TECHNONIKOL in the pack, rounded up. This will be the number of packs of material that should be purchased to create thermal insulation.
Materials and tools for work
To insulate the bathhouse you must prepare:
- LOGICPIR Bath insulation boards;
- LOGICPIR self-adhesive aluminum tape;
- LOGICPIR foam glue;
- self-tapping screws;
- dowels (if material will be attached to brick or concrete bath walls).
- строительный нож;
- строительный уровень;
- двухметровая рейка;
- совок и щетка (веник).
Preparing the sauna walls for installing thermal insulation boards
The thermal insulation is installed only on prepared and level walls. Therefore, you must go over them with a stiff brush or broom before the work. Remove all debris, chips, paint or varnish residue, etc. For more effective cleaning, you can use a vacuum cleaner.
After preparation, check how even the base is. To do this, use a two-meter rod. The maximum allowable value of gaps under it is up to 5 mm. If the figures are higher the battens need to be levelled additionally.
Installation of the thermal insulation layer and using LOGICPIR Bath boards by Technonikol
Before installing the boards it is recommended that the joints are laid with spacing. It is not permissible to have 4 boards butted together to form a cross joint in the wall. The expansion joints will reduce the heat loss in the sauna.
The LOGICPIR sauna boards are fixed in 2 ways:
- Fixing with foamed adhesive. This is the best option as it allows for maximum air tightness (no thermal bridges). Gaps can also be filled with this material.
- The use of self-tapping screws (temporary method). They may only be used until the boards are fixed by the battens. It is recommended to remove the self-tapping screws later on and fill the holes with adhesive foam. Seal the holes with aluminum tape. The basic attachment of the boards to the wall is carried out through the wooden rail with screws. The maximum spacing is 400 mm.
When installing the LOGICPIR Bath panels there may be places where the fastenings are difficult. These gaps must not be left. They are filled with adhesive foam.
Forming a continuous thermal insulation contour
Gaps may occur between the LOGICPIR Bath insulation boards from TECHNONIKOL during the installation. If they are more than 3 mm in size, they must be sealed with adhesive foam and sealed hermetically with aluminium adhesive tape from above. This is also used for the screw fixing points.
LOGICPIR Bath boards are lined with aluminium foil and sealing the gaps with aluminium adhesive tape ensures a tight structure that is completely vapour-proof. In addition, it will not let the heat escape but will reflect it back into the room.
Additional Waterproofing of the Bath Rooms
To ensure maximum tightness of the bath rooms, additional waterproofing in certain places is required. Attention is paid to the joints between the walls, floor and screed. Moisture can penetrate here, which is destructive to the condition of the thermal insulation.
To minimise the risk of water vapour penetration, elastic waterproofing PVC tape can be used additionally.
Installing a decorative covering in the bath
The thermal insulation layer is an important part in any bathhouse. But it must not be left uncovered. Therefore, a decorative coating is mounted on top of it. The choice of users is euro linings or wood (oak, pine). In order to make the installation, a wooden batten is put on the thermal insulation layer and already the decorative coating is fixed to it.
Finishing finish is best done by fixing battens with dimensions of 20*40 mm. They are positioned vertically so that the condensate can flow down freely and not accumulate on the foil-coated surface of the LOGICPIR Bath by TECKONIKOL. The decorative trim is mounted horizontally.
All materials for the sauna must be treated with moisture-repellent agents, as well as compositions against fungi and pathogens. This is a necessary measure that increases the life span of the coatings.
LOGICPIR Bath boards from TECHNONIKOL are the best choice for the rooms of a bath complex. They combine several important qualities at once: hydro-, heat- and sound-insulating properties, affordable price, and ease of installation. With the preparation of the walls, installation of boards and finishing can cope with anyone, so there is no need to call professional installers. The materials are environmentally friendly. During operation at high temperatures they do not emit any toxic substances that may affect health, which has been proven by the Institute of Solution Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences.