Heating systems using gas as fuel are highly efficient and reliable. Their heat generators have an impressive efficiency factor and are safe to operate. There are several ways of heating a private house using gas.
There are budget solutions as well as more expensive with maximum efficiency and stability of operation. We are ready to share with you proven in practice options for the arrangement of a gas heating system. Using our recommendations guarantees a trouble-free and safe network.
The information we provide is based on the building regulations. The presented information is completed by visual illustrations, schemes and video tutorials.
- Centralised or autonomous gas supply?
- Choice of a gas boiler for heating
- Which combustion chamber is better?
- Characteristics of condensing models
- Fireplace for gas heating at home
- Schemes for arranging water heating
- Rules for arrangement of gas heating
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Centralized or autonomous gas supply?
Without combustible fuel, any option for an in-home heating system in autonomous version would be of no use. Gas is the first thing to think about when planning gas heating in a country house.
Not all settlements in Russia are gasified. However, the \"blue fuel\" can be obtained not only from a pipe or a cylinder with liquid fuel, but also from a gas tank.
Gas is the most affordable type of fuel especially if there is a possibility to connect to centralized gas supply
A significant disadvantage of gas use is its toxicity and ability to explode if operational rules are violated
The centralized gas supply networks transport natural gas or its artificial analogue obtained in oil refineries to consumers, In cities the gas is transported by medium-pressure networks, from where it is delivered to regulation stations reducing the pressure to low values suitable for supply to household appliances
In small towns and smaller settlements networks of low pressure are laid, supplying low and medium-calorie blue fuel
Gas lines are laid underground, deepening them below the seasonal freezing of ground layers. Above ground laying is allowed in places where rivers, highways, ravines and similar obstacles are crossed
At the entrance to a private building, as well as a neighborhood or village is set cut-off device. They are put on each branch line and in front of the pipeline transitions through obstacles
Internal distribution of gas pipeline performs of water and gas pipes, regulated by GOST 3262-75. They are painted twice with oil paint, to protect against corrosion
House connection to central gas supply
Private house has gas supply
Main gas pipeline
Pressure regulating gas line station
Gas network of a small community
Lines of gas piping are laid according to rules
Cock on the inlet to a private home
Painted gas piping
Natural gas, consisting mainly of methane, is piped to private homes. Its liquefied counterpart is a propane-butane mixture, which is pumped into tanks for transportation and storage. The pressure in such cylinders and gas holders is about 15-18 atmospheres.
When heating in a private house by means of cylinder tanks in 50 liters in the winter will have to change every 2-3 days. If a country cottage selected autonomous gas supply, it is better to prefer the gas holder, which can be up to 20 cubic meters.
Selecting the tank on the cubic volume depends on the level of consumption of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Here it is necessary to take into account not only the hot-water boiler, but also the fireplace and the gas stove, if they are used in the house.
For a cottage of 150 sq.m. is recommended gas holder to set the volume of 2000-3000 liters. And for a country house of 300 sq.m. a variant for 8000-9000 liters would be required.
In the absence of a gas main in the settlement one can use the variant with autonomous fuel supply from a gas holder designed for liquefied gas storage
In most cases a gas pipeline is more advantageous than a reservoir in the ground. But only when the settlement is already gasified.
Situations in which the installation of a gas tank will be cheaper than connecting to the main pipeline are also possible. It all depends on the specific conditions of the connection in the region and the remoteness of the village from the large gas pipeline.
Gallery of pictures
Household LPG installations
Location of gas group Gas cylinders
Gas holder for LPG
With a gas holder you do not have to worry about the pressure in the pipe. It is very easy to use. You just have to call in specialists regularly to test it for safety and remember to refill it. To install the entire system will require no more than three days.
If you have chosen an autonomous gasification option, the gas boiler should be purchased one that is designed to work on LPG. On sale there are models designed to function exclusively on mains natural gas.
But most gas heat generators are adapted to burn both varieties of this fuel. You only have to change nozzles and reconfigure valves and electronics for the other mode.
The main disadvantage of gas - you can install it only on a large area, the tank according to SNiPs should be at least 10 meters from the house
The rules and specifics of gasification of country houses are detailed in one of the popular articles on our site.
Selecting a heating gas boiler
Modern gas-fired heat generating equipment has a variety of automation and is able to work in several modes. It can be floor-standing or wall-mounted.
The second option is more compact, but has capacity limitations. If the model is chosen for a large area private house, you will have to buy a powerful unit in a floor standing version.
Gas boilers are subdivided according to the mode, ignition type, energy efficiency, number of circuits and method of combustion products removal
The operating principle of the gas boiler is very simple - fuel is ignited in the burner with piezo elements or electronic ignition, further as a result of fuel burning heat energy is generated, which through a heat exchanger is transferred to water.
The last one is either used as heating medium for the heating system or for the DHW.
The traditional convection gas boilers lose in efficiency to the condensing boilers. The performance of the former does not exceed 90% of energy consumption. Manufacturers of the latter guarantee 100% efficiency, some models promise 105 and even 110%
The heat exchanger in a gas boiler can be made:
- of steel (stainless steel);
- cast iron.
The most common versions are steel. This metal is cheap and ductile, so cracks from constant heating/cooling appear less frequently.
But steel elements in constant interaction with water of the gas heating system arranged in a country house quickly begin to corrode.
Cast iron heat exchanger is the most durable, steel is cheaper, and copper is most effective in capturing heat transfer to water
Cast iron is less prone to corrosion, but it is quite heavy. Most models of boilers with cast iron heat exchangers are floor standing. On the wall such heavy and oversized equipment is problematic to mount.
If you need a compact and maximally light heating unit, the best option is with a copper coil. However, it is the most expensive of all the other metals.
For supplying the cottage with heat and hot water you can choose a scheme with two single-circuit boilers or a variant with one double-circuit unit
The number of circuits in a gas-fired water heating boiler depends on the strapping scheme and its usage principle. One heat exchanger is originally designed to organize a gas heating system in a private house. For DHW must install another boiler or immediately pick up a two-circuit model.
Hot water for household needs is best heated in a storage boiler. Stream models are less economical. They use more gas for heating.
Wall gas boilers are fully equipped miniature boiler rooms. They have their own circulation pump, expansion tank, and safety group. Most types of wall-mounted equipment serve two circuits
Which combustion chamber is better?
For the gas in the boiler furnace to burn, it needs a constant supply of oxygen. It is taken directly from the boiler room or drawn in from the street. The first option means natural air inflow and the second one - forced one by a ventilator.
Gas boilers are equipped with two types of combustion chambers:
- Closed - the oxygen is supplied through the gap between the paired tubes of different diameter. The combustion products are discharged through an inner duct.
- Open - The air to the furnace comes from the room with the heating unit through a supply valve. The combustion products are discharged through a circular flue duct.
The first option is independent of the size of the room. Suitable for all room sizes. Coaxial kind of chimney from the unit with a closed furnace can be led through the wall or through the upper ceiling with a roof.
In the second case you have to install a high of 5-6 meters chimney, otherwise the draft for sucking into the combustion chamber required volumes of oxygen will not be enough.
But gas boilers with atmospheric burner does not require connection to the power grid. They do not have a fan, everything happens naturally without forced circulation.
Boilers with closed chambers and forced air injection in comparison with open ones have higher efficiency, but they require permanent power supply for operation
Water heaters on gas with an open combustion chamber are recommended to be installed in special rooms with good ventilation. If you install them in living rooms, they greatly reduce the amount of oxygen in them.
Without a forced ventilation system you can not do anything. And this means additional costs for installation and subsequent operation of the air ventilation equipment.
Characteristics of condensing models
In conventional gas boilers the water vapour produced during combustion of gas flies out to the chimney. In the process of combustion it is not much, but it still carries quite a significant amount of thermal energy. In order not to waste this heat, condensing boilers have been developed.
The flue gases in a condensing boiler pass through a secondary heat exchanger where they slightly heat the cold water entering the unit
The operating principle of these units is based on the fact that when the flue gas steam is cooled, it transfers the heat to the return water from the heating system. The temperature of the heat carrier does not increase greatly, but the recuperator is quite suitable as an additional source of heat.
The condensed water from the condensing boiler is led through a special pipe to the sewage system or a separate vessel. There is a nuance that must be clearly understood - the condensate formed is in fact a weakly concentrated acid. And in the hour it can flow up to 4-6 liters.
If this liquid poured into the septic, then all the microbes living in it will be destroyed. If there is a cleaning station in the country house, the condensate from the boiler can not be poured into the sewer system. With the design of the chimney everything is easier, just take the one designed for boilers with a closed chamber.
Fireplace for gas heating house
Fireplaces on gas are comparable to electric or wood-fired counterparts in terms of equipment cost. But gas fuel is much cheaper.
And unlike wood, gas heating with a fireplace in a country house involves no problems with ash. Plus, you do not have to constantly monitor the operation of the firebox and take care of cutting logs.
Fireplaces that convert gas into heat energy are used in heating systems because They are not equipped with the appliances necessary for dual circuit operation
For the type of installation, gas fireplaces are:
The general construction and the internal filling (burners, automatics, combustion chamber arrangement) are exactly like gas boilers. In both cases the connection technology is identical. Differences exist only in the principle of space heating.
In the principle of connection and organization of heating system gas fireplaces are similar to floor heating boilers
The water heating boiler is originally designed to heat water, while the conventional fireplace - for air convection from the body and front screen, behind which the fuel is burning.
Schemes for arranging water heating
Water heating systems with water as the heating medium are arranged for heating cottages, consisting of:
- a water heating boiler (single-circuit or double-circuit);
- pipes and fittings(metal or polypropylene);
- bypasses allowing to disconnect the individual heaters from the mains;
- batteries (cast iron, aluminium, steel and bimetallic);
- expansion tank.
Gas heating units are equipped with a specific safety system that includes a solenoid valve and a thermocouple. The devices are wired together.
If the heater is operating normally, the thermocouple junction is heated by the igniter. At this time, current flows freely through the coil of the solenoid valve, which ensures that the valve is open.
When the thermocouple cools down, gas access is cut off by the solenoid valve.
Battery connections are either single-pipe or double-pipe. In the first case, the water is supplied and discharged from the radiator by means of a single pipe. In the second, the heater is connected to two separate pipe lines (supply and return).
The heating pipes to the radiators may be connected according to the lower, upper, lateral and diagonal scheme
The heating circuits according to the water movement in the pipes are with natural and forced circulation. In the case of the second variant, the coolant circulates in the system by means of convection and gravity. And the forced scheme involves the installation of a circulation pump.
To ensure the normal operation of the system with two or more circuits connected to the manifold, it is provided for the installation of a hydraulic arrow. A hydraulic return line eliminates pressure drops and the possibility of water hammer.
The expansion tank may be open or closed (divided inside into two parts by a hermetic membrane). For gravity heating systems the open version will be sufficient. A closed tank is designed for circuits with forced circulation.
When using an open expansion tank the water is saturated with air, so that this does not become a problem, the system should be supplemented with a circuit its removal
For small cottages the natural principle of water movement will be sufficient. However, if the dwelling has two or three floors, a pump is essential. The length of the circulation circuit in the first scheme is limited to 30 meters. At a greater distance the boiler will not be able to \"squeeze\" the water.
With natural circulation of the coolant in the scheme of gas heating of a private house there is no pump. If the boiler is selected energy-independent, then the entire heating system is not dependent on electricity supply. It simply does not have any electricity consuming elements.
On the one hand it is more stable in operation, but on the other hand the quality of heating is lower (to the most distant from the water heater radiators water reaches strongly cooled).
Especially the latter concerns the pipelines and batteries made of steel or cast iron. These materials have a high hydraulic resistance, which reduces the flow of the heating medium.
Besides using standard radiators in a country house it is possible to organize gas heating by means of \"warm floor\"
It is also possible to organize a combined heating system. It has a circulation pump connected to the mains via a bypass. When it is necessary to heat the air in the rooms quickly, it is switched on to accelerate the water circuit.
And in the other cases it is cut off from the main pipe with shut-off valves and the system continues to function in its natural (gravitational) mode.
Gas heating rules
Gasification and construction of a gas-based heating system in a private house is carried out in several stages:
- Preparing and subsequent approval by the supervisory authorities of the gas heating project.
- Purchase of consumables, boiler and other equipment.
- Connection of the house to the village gas network.
- Installation of the gas equipment and piping system with batteries.
- Filling of pipes with heating fluid.
- Test operation by test run.
To prepare independently a gas heating project for your country house with all the schemes and calculations without having a diploma of thermal engineer is impossible.
In addition the formed documentation still has to be approved by the gas companies. It is best to entrust all these procedures to the staff of the design and installation organization.
Scheme arrangement in a private home gas heating should be calculated in detail. If the boiler to choose too powerful, it will burn extra fuel. And if you do not have enough power unit will have to work at the limit of capacity, as a result, it will break down before time.
To obtain permission to connect to the centralized mains and to use equipment on liquefied gas must obtain different package of documents. Before you decide to organize a gas system, you must study not only them, but also weigh all the pros and cons to decide on the best option.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Roll #1. The nuances of organizing the gas heating of the cottage:
Roll #2. Principles of circulation of the coolant in the heating system of a private house:
Roll #3. Self-assembly of various heating systems for country cottages:
Competently prepare calculations and schemes for the organization of gas heating for a private house only an experienced heating engineer is able.
The preparation of project documentation and its approval is best left to professionals. But the further installation of the heating system can be done independently. Here you will need only the skills of installation work, as well as strict adherence to the instructions and the project.
You have useful tips about the organization of gas heating and the choice of gas boiler? Would you like to share your own experience or have you found controversial points while reading the material presented by us? Please write your comments and questions in the box below the text.