Connecting A Motion Sensor For Lighting With A Switch: Schematic And Step-By-Step Instructions

Intelligent home electronics are characterized by devices called \"motion sensors\". A new type of switching device for light sources is capable of showing greater functionality than traditional designs.

For example, connecting a motion sensor for lighting with or without a switch increases the comfort of use of the lighting device and helps to save energy resources. So what kind of devices are motion detectors? We suggest to understand everything in order.

In this article we have considered the principle of operation of different types of motion detectors, indicated the peculiarities of their application, as well as practical tips on how to choose the installation scheme, realize the installation and setup of the device.

The contents of the article:

  • The technical definition of motion intelligence
    • Division of motion sensors into groups
    • The operating principle of infrared devices
  • How to connect the device in a lighting circuit
    • Commendations for choosing a circuit installation
    • Installing a motion sensor with a switch
  • Conclusions and a useful video on the subject

The technical definition of motion intelligence

Automatics steadily and consistently covers the domestic sphere. Manual operation of almost any kind of household appliance is being confidently reduced to a minimum. The emergence of motion detectors is a further confirmation of this.

These devices (usually in miniature versions) are designed and produced by different companies in different designs. However the operating principle of all existing modifications has in common the effect of emission of different types of waves.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Electronics endowed with intelligence. These devices have the function of recognizing heat rays emitted by the human body. In response to the heat fluxes the devices carry out certain actions

The following technologies are very common at the moment:

  • acoustic;
  • optical;
  • radio wave.

Based on the application of a particular technology for the production of a particular type of system, the production results in various types of structures.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Acoustic version of the device intended to control movement. The actuators are not triggered here by the signal of the thermal rays but by the signal of the acoustic waves

Motion controllers in particular are used extensively in various fields:

  • ultrasonic;
  • microwave;
  • photoelectric;
  • infrared;
  • tomographic.

Another remarkable detail of structural nature should be added.

Division of motion sensors into groups

All existing motion sensors are roughly divided into three groups:

  • active devices;
  • passive devices;
  • combined devices.

Differs one from another by technological features.

Active devicesThe designs are usually based on the scheme of receiving devices by which the operating signal is radiated and perceived as reflected from objects.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Another version of a peripheral equipment control and on/off device. This design operates on the principle of emission and reception of radio waves. This is a so called motion sensor with radio channel

Passive type constructionsusually operate on the scheme of receiving signal waves from the outside world. So only the reception technique is working here.

Combined sensorsare respectively made for the two mentioned variants.

The infrared sensors which with regard to the constructional features belong to the passive devices have the lion's share of the whole available range. They are the most affordable and economically priced devices for domestic use.

The operating principle of infrared devices

The analysis of thermal radiation is the basis of operation of this kind of devices to control the movement of people. For this purpose, a highly sensitive sensor is built into the device.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Widely used infrared design: 1 - housing cover; 2 - multielement lens system; 3 - coverage area limiter; 4 - sensor-controlled electronics; 5 - power supply and base (+)

The element reacts to thermal background radiation (from a person), sends a signal to the electronic comparison circuit, where the moment of actuation is determined. The sensitivity of the sensor is enhanced by a special lens placed in the path of the heat waves.

Modern motion sensor designs are equipped with a multi-element lens system. This solution makes it possible to cover large areas under the control of the sensors. For example, a single infrared sensor mounted 4 meters above the floor would be able to monitor the motion over an area of 20-25 meters2.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Simple infrared system design. Inexpensive to purchase, easy to install, simple to set up. Three variable resistors for adjustment

Each individual device is equipped with a setting electronic module. By means of special controllers (variable resistors or similar), the sensitivity level and the operating time are set. The sensitivity level setting determines the operability of the device in various light conditions.

A time setting system sets the time limit for resetting the active action (returning the device to tracking mode). This limit can be from 1 second to 60 minutes.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

The infrared sensor adjustment module allowing flexible adjustment: 1 - adjustment of sensitivity on the motion of objects; 2 - setting of the active state time; 3 - regulation of the brightness of the light bulbs

There are also motion sensors with a design where the brightness regulation of the light bulbs is supported. These devices can be set to change the brightness smoothly as soon as the circuit is closed, switch on the light with a certain delay.

How to connect the device to the light circuit

The motion sensors with automatic light control function are characterized by ceiling installation. The devices are designed to be mounted in a surface-mounted way. However, the motion detectors are often mounted on walls as well.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Wall-mounted motion detectors. This kind of devices does not give the same coverage of area control as the ceiling version, but the wall-mounted ones are rather actively used

Traditional places for their installation are small areas: living quarters, offices, ancillary rooms.

It is worth mentioning that the connection of movement sensors is not only possible to switch light devices. With these devices it is also convenient to switch ventilation, heating and other systems from one mode to another.

The devices can be connected in normal environmental conditions. The devices may only be used indoors in closed rooms. However, the protection class of these devices corresponds to EN 60669-2-1.

Installation guidelines

The optimum installation height for motion detectors is 2.5 m. If this condition is met, the radius of sensitivity will be at least 3.5 m. Most of the city and private residential buildings have rooms at this height.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

The standard parameters that infrared detectors have. Obtained through experimentation with devices of different versions (+)

Installation operations must be carried out by persons having professional skills in electrical (electronic) equipment. All installation operations may only be carried out with the power line deenergized at the place of installation.

The wiring solutions may vary according to the user's needs. The lighting fixtures are often connected via a motion sensor paired with a normal switch.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Wiring scheme as part of the electrical network when a normal switch (+)

See this version in a step by step installation.

Installation of the motion sensor with switch

The first stepof the user is usually to choose how to lead the supply cable to the body of the motion sensor. The body of the sensor must first be opened. Disassembling the housing is not difficult. Use a slotted screwdriver to gently prize up the edge of the base at the position of the latch.

There are two possible ways to feed the cable:

  • Back feed-usually used for concealed wiring through a hole in the ceiling;
  • Side feedused for installing the cable outside.

In any case the temporary plug of the existing entry hole must be removed.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Before installation the fixing elements should be prepared, the sensor should be examined and afterwards the case should be carefully opened

The second step is the connection of the cable conductors to the destination. The destination are the terminal points marked on the instrument body with the corresponding symbols (L, N, L1). Depending on the device manufacturer and device configuration, the designations may differ.

Step three involves the installation of a motion sensor - directly fixing the device to the ceiling. There are holes in the base of the device for the fastening. These holes are used to fasten the device.

If the ceiling is concrete, the fastening points must first be marked, drilled and provided with dowels. After completing the attachment to the ceiling, the cover is fastened to the base of the device and the entire structure is wiped down with a soft rag.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Installed motion sensors are used for suspended ceiling structures. To fix the casing there are clamping plates (+)

Step 4 is the adjustment of the instrument, which consists in setting the required values on the service potentiometers.

Classically the instruments are usually provided with three service potentiometers:

  • delay time (Time);
  • brilliance (Lux);
  • sensitivity (Meter).

The first potentiometer is used to set the required switch-off delay (i.e. after the lamp lights up, it only goes out after the set time).

The second one sets the brightness mode (minimum value to switch on in total darkness). With potentiometer three the sensitivity to motion is set. Usually the sensitivity is initially set to the minimum.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

Depending on the modification of the devices, the adjustment elements are available. Upper half - used on simple devices with switching of one group of external devices. Lower half - more complicated designs with switching of two groups of external devices (+)

The fifth stepof the installation is the testing of the motion sensor. In order to do this you must use the corresponding function (Test) which is activated by moving the potentiometer (Time) to the position to be tested (Test). After having set the potentiometer to this point, the system is connected to the mains.

After applying current to the line, wait at least 1 minute. This time is necessary for the initialization of the device, its entering the operating mode. The testing of the device can be performed without connection of light devices. The ON/OFF control is indicated by a LED on the front panel.

Connecting a motion sensor for lighting with a switch: schematic and step-by-step instructions

The desired operating mode of the sensor is selected by rotating the dimmer and the sensitivity knob alternately. Separately set the light delay time (+)

In the sensor test mode, the motion must be activated within the sensitivity range. If motion is detected by the sensor, the control LED on the front panel should light up for a short time (2-3 seconds). By turning the sensitivity potentiometer (Meter) the desired level is adjusted.

In the same way  or with some small correction, any other devices of the same class (infrared) are installed and adjusted. Some differences can usually be observed for devices designed for connection of several load channels.

In such designs, additional regulators can be installed and the number of terminals per connection can be increased.

We have a selection of articles on choosing, installing and using motion sensors for lighting. We advise you to read:

  1. Lamps with motion sensor: how to work, how to connect + TOP best manufacturers
  2. How to connect motion sensor to light bulb: step by step instructions

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

This small video guide demonstrates clearly how connection operations for some device modifications are performed. It is worth watching to improve your practice.

A review video on the subject of the use of microwave sensors. These modern modifications are characterized by a high level of \"sensing\" and reliable operation as part of intelligent home systems.

We should add information on the technical requirements for devices such as motion detectors.

So, the load capacity of devices does not usually exceed 1 kW and the maximum switching current is no more than 10A. The devices are designed to operate in AC networks with a frequency of 50-60 Hz at a voltage rating of 230 V.

These basic parameters should be kept in mind before wiring the sensors for specific applications.

Share with readers your experience of wiring and using motion sensors. Please leave comments, ask questions about the subject of the article and participate in discussions - the feedback form is below.

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