Calculation Of Heating In An Apartment Building: Consumption Standards And Formulas For Calculating The Payment According To The Meter

Are you surprised by the monthly heating bill presented by the managing companies: the figures on the receipt don't seem excessive for the first time anymore? It is not pleasant to have to pay a considerable sum in fall, winter and spring, regardless of the temperature outside the window, calculated by nobody knows who. Do you agree?

The calculation of heating in the apartment building depends on the established norms of heat, which would seem to be standard. However, heating rates are increasing every year. In order not to be cheated, consumers prefer to monitor the correctness of the calculations of the management company. But how to do it correctly and what can be required?

It is these questions that our material is devoted to - here we will tell you how to correctly calculate the amount for the supplied heating in the apartment of a high-rise apartment. The article will consider in detail the latest legislative norms of heat consumption and provide various formulas for calculations, taking into account the presence of an all-household, individual counter, as well as their absence. The presented material will be supplemented with thematic videos and illustrative photos.

Content of the article:

  • Legislative payment regulation
  • Formulas for making calculations
    • Option #1 - without a building-wide meter
    • Option #2 - with a meter installed per house
    • Option #3 - with individual meters
    • Option #4 - calculations for the public
    • Option #5 - for houses with private boiler
  • What to do if the calculation is wrong?
  • Conclusions and useful video on the subject

Legislative regulation of payments

There are currently four government decrees that regulate the rules for calculating utility payments to residents of apartment buildings:

  • N306 of May 23, 2006 (reviewed the procedure for establishing service consumption rates for apartment buildings);
  • N354 of May 6, 2011 (defined the procedure for providing services to residents);
  • N258 of March 28, 2012 and N344 of April 16, 2013 to amend the previous document (PP N306);
  • N1708 of December 28, 2018 (changes to PP N354).

The first and second documents are systematically amended, the last of which took place on April 4, 2020.

Based on these documents, each individual region of the country decides on the choice of payment form:

  • Option 1 - payment is calculated only for the heating season (usually October-May);
  • Option 2 - payment is spread evenly throughout the year.

This form mainly affects those who do not have meters for heating.

And consumers with meters installed are concerned with one of the main changes of the Decree - the adjustment of the calculation formulas in which the meter readings are now taken into account without taking into account the meters installed in the house.

Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

The installation of an apartment building's common heating meter is based on the decision of the residents of the apartment building. The meter verification and the necessary maintenance works are also organized by the residents of the building

While in apartment buildings with meters the difference in readings between the common and apartment meters are recalculated and added equally to the payment of each consumer.

Hence the heating payment is made up of the following components: heating in the apartment + heating in the entranceway.

Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

Installation of individual apartment meters for heating is currently not obligatory. However, given the experience of a number of users, it could be argued that the meter-based payment for heat consumption is lower than the established norm and tariff

There are generally several formulas for calculating the heating for each possible option:

  • if there is an individual meter in the apartment;
  • Its individual meters in the apartment/nonresidential premises;
  • when heating equipment is involved, if this equipment is considered part of the common property of the house.

    Formulas for making calculations

    The formulas for calculations in the presence of collective, individual heat meters and in the absence of the meter are different. Below we will look at the procedure for calculations in different situations.

    Option #1 - without collective meter

    If the tenants in an apartment building have not installed a collective house meter, the payment will be based on three conditions:

    • the established norm;
    • heating tariff;
    • heated area.

    The standard for heating is set by the local authorities in each region independently and depends on the climatic conditions of the region. The tariff is also set differently in each region. The \"heated area\" includes the total floor area of the apartment, excluding balconies and loggias.

    The formula for calculating the heating costs is therefore given in the following photo:

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    The final heat cost based on the formula does not depend on the heat energy actually needed to heat the premises. In order to improve the energy efficiency of heating supply an active campaign is underway for the widespread installation of heat meters

    This is the general formula for calculating electricity consumption in houses without collective meters.

    The form of payment must be taken into account in the calculation: for a heating period or for the whole year. Based on the form of payment, the calculations are made according to the formulas below.

    Payment for a heating period

    In accordance with the rules, payment for a heating period is made according to the following formula:

    Pi = (Vi + (Si x Soi x Nt x (Sob - Sind)) / (Sob x (Sob - Sind + Soi)) x TT ,


    Pi - the final payment for the heating used.

    Si - the area of the premises for which the calculation is made (m2).

    Sob- the total area of all premises of the house (m2).

    Soi - total area of the common premises (common areas) (m2).

    Nt -the established heating norm (Gcal).

    Sind -the area of all apartments/non-residential premises without heating appliances, (m2).

    TT - the fixed heating tariff (rub./Gcal).

    Vi - volume of the consumed energy from heating for the particular premises.

    The \"common premises\" includes:

    • staircases;
    • entrances and halls;
    • corridors;
    • other premises not belonging to the individual owners.

    The amount of energy consumed from heating for a particular room (Vi ) is calculated according to this formula:

    Vi = Si x ((Nt x (Sob - Sind))/(Sob - Sind + Soi)),

    Where Si, Sob, Soi, Sind, Nt are the same values as in the previous formula.

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    The electronic temperature sensors installed in the battery are not relevant for the calculation of the heat consumption charge. They can only monitor the temperature of the heat supplied

    Pay for the whole year

    In some regions, heating costs are spread over the entire calendar year in order to ease the financial burden of utility bills.

    The formula for calculating this cost is as follows:

    Pi = (Vi + (Si x Soi x Nt x K x (Sob - Sind)) / (Sob x (Sob - Sind + Soi)) x TT .

    This formula differs from the previous  formula in the appearance of the coefficient K, which is determined by dividing the number of months of the heating season by 12.

    The formula for calculating the amount of heat energy per a given room is also given a K coefficient:

    V= Si x ((Nt x K x (Sob - Sind))/(Sob - Sind + Soi)).

    Calculation by the seemingly complicated formulas, if all values are available, can be done independently.

    Option #2 - with a meter installed per house

    It is believed that the situation when a common meter for heating supply is installed is the most common. The use of a common meter is due to the lack of possibility to introduce individual meters in the design of utilities.

    In the end, each consumer cannot independently control the necessary amount of heat energy for his apartment.

    This is why the calculation of the heating costs will take into account the following basic parameters:

    • total amount of heat energy consumed;
    • room area;
    • building area (including all rooms)
    • heat tariff.

    The general formula for this calculation will be as follows:

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    The use of an all-household meter does not allow perfect control of electricity consumption as there is no possibility to regulate the heat supplied to each apartment individually

    The heating calculation also takes into account a certain payment form.


    From the general calculation formula, a specific formula is determined for each consumer:

    Pi =(Vi + (Si x (Vd - ∑Vi ) / Sob) x TT,


    Pi  is the final payment for the heating used.

    Si - area of the premises for which the calculation is made (m2).

    Sob - total area of all premises of the house (m2).

    Vd - volume of supplied heating according to meter readings, if heating season is paid for, (Gcal).

    TT - the fixed heating tariff, (rubles/Gcal).

    ∑Vi  - total energy consumption from heating in all areas of the house. The calculation can be done by multiplying the area of the dwelling premises by the result of division of the heat energy volume according to the house counter readings Vd  by the sum of all apartments and premises not included in the property.

    Vi - volume of the consumed heat energy for a particular room.

    Calculated Vi  by the following formula:

    Vi = Si x (Vd/ (Sob - Soi + Sind)),


    Sob is the total area of apartments/non-residential premises of the house (m2).

    Sind - total area of all apartments/nonresidential premises without heating appliances in the building (m2).

    Soi - total area of all premises of common property in the building (common premises) (m2).

    This is the formula used by the utilities to calculate the heating bills.

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    The heat meter readings must be reported monthly to the managing company in order for them to calculate on the basis of the actual heat consumption

    Yearly settlement details

    The calculation follows the same formulae as for the heating period.

    But there are peculiarities in the calculations:

    1. The previous year's heating consumption is calculated.
    2. Calculating this year's heating payment.
    3. Adjustment of the final payment amount.

    The adjustment follows the formula:

    Pi = Pkpi - Pnpi,


    Pkpi - the heating fee charged on the basis of last year consumption.

    Pnpi- the amount of the heating fee charged for that year to the consumer.

    The parameter Vd for the previous year is used for calculation by the heating fee form. In order to calculate the monthly payment it is necessary to divide the annual heat volume according to the readings of the house metering device by 12.

    The parameter Vd for this year is used for calculating the payment.

    We dealt in more detail with the question of the calculation of the house heat meter in our other article.

    Option #3 - with individual meters

    The solution allowing one to pay for the heat energy actually used is the installation of an individual meter.

    But the calculation of the payment for the individual meter becomes more complicated and includes the following parameters:

    • the amount of heat consumed;
    • the amount of heat consumed in the house;
    • the floor area;
    • the area of the house that is heated;
    • the fixed heat tariff.

    The general formula for the calculation is illustrated in the picture:

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    In order to use this formula for calculation it is necessary that 95% of the building premises have individual meters. Naturally there should also be a building-wide meter

    The heating of the entrance and other common rooms is paid for by the tenants themselves. The amount of payment is determined by subtracting the sum of readings of all individual meters from the readings of the apartment meter and dividing the result by the number of occupants in the building.

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    The cost of an individual apartment heat meter starts at 6000 rubles. This amount can pay for itself in the first year of using the meter

    Calculation is done according to the formula:

    Pi = (Vin + Viodn x( Si / Sob)) x TT,


    P- the final payment for the heating used.

    Si  - area of the premises for which the calculation is made (m2).

    Sob - total area of all premises of the house (m2).

    TT - the fixed heating tariff, (RUR/Gcal).

    Vin - the heat meter reading for the calculated premises.

    Vionly one readings of the meter for heat energy supply in the building, minus the sum of energy supplied to each room.

    But if not all apartment dwellers have installed individual meters, the heat energy consumption for each particular apartment can still be calculated in accordance with the meter readings.

    The calculation formulas are similar to those used to determine the amount for heating in apartment buildings with an all-house meter:

    Pi = (Vi + (Si x (Vd - ∑Vi ) / Sob) x TT

    The difference is the calculation of the element Vi.

    Vi - volume of the consumed energy from heating for the particular room:

    • for rooms with meters - according to the meter readings, when heating is calculated for the heating period;
    • for rooms without meters - calculated over the year from the average monthly volume.

    The formula for calculating the amount of energy consumed:

    V= Si x (∑VIU / ∑SiIU),


    Si -the total area of the room for which the calculation is made, (m2).

    ∑VIUI - total meter readings during the heating season or per month in the calculation per year, (Gcal).

    ∑SiPU -the sum of the areas of all rooms participating in the calculation and having meters installed.

    When calculating the full year's heating charges, an adjustment must be determined using the formula for the exact amount paid:

    Pi = Pkpi - Pnpi,


    Pkpiis the heating charge assessed based on last year's consumption.

    Pnpi - the amount of heating fee charged to the consumer for that year.

    Option #4 - calculations for public utilities

    Besides the above options, there are two more for which the calculation formulae are also derived:

    • communal apartment;
    • unit houses without central heating.

    The calculation for communal apartments is similar to the calculation according to consumption standards or according to the meter for apartment buildings. The only difference is that the charge is proportional to each room.

    This calculation is made according to the formula below:

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    When calculating the heating costs in a communal apartment, the difference obtained when counting the corridor, toilet, vestibule and kitchen is considered to be small and not taken into account

    Option #5 - for houses with private boiler

    In houses without central heating and with private boiler house, the calculation of the public resource consumption for heating a given apartment is also done.

    The general formula is as follows:

    Calculation of heating in an apartment building: consumption standards and formulas for calculating the payment according to the meter

    Modern apartment buildings have their own boiler house. Using their own gas-fired boilers is considered the most economical way to heat the premises

    Building a private house with individual heating? In that case we recommend you to get acquainted with the norms of gas consumption for heating or look at the example of calculating gas consumption for heating a house of 150 square metres2.

    What to do if you have been mischarged?

    Uponfortunately many consumers face the problem of wrong calculations more often. An unscrupulous accountant of the managing company, mistakes in the calculations, any inattention due to someone else's fault - all this ultimately falls on the shoulders of the heat consumer.

    Before paying the receipt received it is necessary to reconcile all the data given in it with your calculations.

    If an error has been detected at this stage, there are several ways to solve the problem:

    1. Write a statement/complaint to the management company.
    2. Get a complaint to the State Housing Inspectorate.
    3. File a complaint to Rospotrebnadzor.
    4. File a complaint to the Public Prosecutor's Office.
    5. File a complaint to court.

    When filing a written application to the Managing Company, make sure that there has been no tariff increase. If the tariff remained the same, then often, after writing such a statement, the company will find an error in the charges and go to a meeting.

    With the claim, you can determine the order of return of overpaid funds:

    • return of money;
    • recalculation against future payments.

    Complain to the Russian Consumer Rights Watch and the State Housing Inspection, if the management company intentionally overcharges. In this case, the application/claim is brought in person or sent by registered mail. According to the results of the inspection of these structures, the Managing Company may impose administrative penalties.

    Appeal to the Prosecutor's Office occurs when the previous instances do not solve the problem. And when going to court, it is necessary to have incontrovertible evidence of identified billing violations.

    Conclusions and useful video on the topic

    This video shows how to calculate the amount to be paid for heating:

    Another thematic video on calculating heating fees:

    We have reviewed in detail the basic formulas for calculating the payment for heating consumed. When you calculate by general, simpler formulas, you can determine an approximate amount. However, utilities take all parameters into account in the calculations, performing them using more complex formulas, also described by us in this article. If you know all the initial values, then despite the existing subtleties, it will not be difficult to calculate the cost of heating.

    If after reading the article you still have questions, want to clarify a number of nuances from our experts, ask them in the special form for comments, located below the article. Also here you can share your personal experience of making settlements or successfully resolving a dispute with the Management Company.


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