Often homeowners prefer to assemble simple and useful homemade devices from improvised and unnecessary materials instead of buying ready-made ones. The main feature of the fireplace is that it heats up as quickly as it cools down. That is why its scope of use is narrowed mainly to those rooms where it is necessary to provide quick heating, while the appearance of the device for the user is often completely unimportant.
It can be made by the stove-burzhuyka their own hands, and if you want it modernized to achieve a more efficient heat transfer.
You also thought about assembling such self-made and do not know where to start? We will help you in the realization of the task - in the article the order of assembly of different variants of the self-made stove is considered, the drawings and schemes are given.
All the ways to improve the self-made burzhuyka are also detailed, as a result of which the efficiency of the stove will become noticeably higher.
The contents of the article:
- How to make a firewood stove: Construction and schemes
- How to improve a firewood stove for solid fuel
- How is it possible to improve a firewood stove?
- Option #1 - stove with enlarged fuel
- Option #2 - the \"Bubafonja\" long-burning stove
- Option #3 - stove with secondary afterburning
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to make a fireplace: Construction and Schematics
The choice of stove design depends on what material is used as fuel. Each user himself determines the degree of its availability and economic feasibility.
It is the combustible material, which has different temperatures and character of burning, that dictates the principles of creating different modifications of the device.
The shape of the burzhuyka can be different, often it depends on the availability of suitable material. It can be an old canister, a gas cylinder, a metal container - anything you can find at hand. The main thing in choosing it is the thickness of the metal and the shape that requires a minimum of alterations.
The economic effect of the homemade stove
Gas cylinders for making the body
Model stove from an old flask
Welded metal construction
Benefits of compact size
The main disadvantage of the burnt oil stove
Bricks to reduce thermal conductivity
Waste oil stove
Waste machine oil is a multi-component, weakly flammable substance, which must first be broken down into its simpler components in order to burn it. This is done by pyrolysis or flame separation, where the fuel is heated and vaporized.
To do this, a fire is started with a rag soaked in gasoline or kerosene. The fuel, when heated, splits into simpler flammable substances. Further the pyrolysis combustion process maintains itself.
The desire to apply used oil as fuel led professionals and craftsmen to the appearance of a special stove. Its design creates conditions for the combustion of slightly flammable oils and ensures the safety of the user
Step-by-step description of works
The Waste Oil Burner is made in this sequence:
The design of the cylindrical double-volume waste-heat boiler ensures high temperature and complete combustion of fuel. Rectangular chambers can be used instead of cylindrical ones.
This kind of construction is often found in both homemade and industrial products
The bottom tank of the fireplace is filled with fuel through a small hole. At the same time it serves as an evaporator and as a primary combustion chamber. The small hole on the lid is also used for ignition, air supply and adjustment of the air flow (by means of a damper).
Fuel refilling may be avoided by using a pipe leading from a separate container, in which the oil will be poured while the heater is burning
The pipe with holes in the first compartment serves as secondary afterburning chamber - where the fuel evaporates due to the heat in the first compartment.
The next cylindrical tank is provided with an internal baffle to reduce the velocity of the combustion products, providing an increase in the oxidation of nitrogen compounds. It serves at the same time as an infrared and convection heater.
The factory layout of the waste oil stove can include a water jacket or circuit. Such an advanced stove-burner can be used to heat and provide hot water for the home
Waste oil as fuel is the most commonly used in garage-burners. Of all heating devices it is one of the most dangerous.
If one dares to violate fire safety rules and make the stove himself, it is still better to allocate a separate room for the boiler or fence it off with a brick partition.
There are also other materials on making waste oil stoves on our site:
- Tube waste stove: how to make an effective waste oil stove from improvised materials
- How to make a waste oil stove with your own hands: options and examples of stove making
- Waste oil stove for garage with your own hands: The best examples of making homemade
- Waste oil stove for the garage with your own hands: step-by-step construction guide
Building a solid fuel stove
Wood, brick, coal is still the most affordable and economical fuel material. Its use is the least safe, and therefore a stove working on such fuel is the easiest to make.
There are extremely many variants of various modifications of the burzhuks, made by our own hands. Let's consider the most widespread models.
Burner-burner from cylinder and barrel
The old gas cylinder from thick-walled metal is suitable for all kinds of fuel, including coal. This simple construction will do the job of heating the room quickly, but once the fuel supply stops, it will quickly cool down.
The homemade cylinder stove is compact and has a neat appearance. This kind of fireplace is suitable for country houses, temporary housing and garages.
Before cutting the gas bottle, the gas must be bled from it and the condensate must be drained. Then completely fill the cylinder with water - it displaces the residual gas and washes the inner walls
In order to make an oven out of the gas cylinder, holes should be cut in the body for the door and for the chimney. The sections of metal cut out will serve as doors, after the curtains and locking mechanism are welded to them. For air flow into the furnace door at the bottom drilled through.
A detailed description of the manufacturing process of self-made chimney for burzhuyka we reviewed in another article.
In the lower part of the chamber placed grate (it can be welded from the fittings), under which will accumulate ash. It is also possible to organize a cooking surface. This is easier to do on a horizontally placed cylinder by welding corners on both sides.
It is good if the barrel originally has legs. If not, you have to weld them on or mount the stove on bricks.
The gas cylinder stove can also be used as a base for further construction of a hot water heater, as it is also called - \"Titan\". For this purpose, a stainless steel container is installed on top of the stove, through which a chimney pipe passes.
Water in a wood-burning boiler heats up quickly and little wood is used - in summer time it is enough to put one in a small furnace.
The barrel stove has the same construction as the one made from a cylinder. The tank must be of thick metal
A metal tank with walls at least 3 mm thick is also suitable for the firebox. The open top of the tank is closed with a circle made of metal sheet and welded.
A hole is cut in the lid or wall for the chimney. Its diameter should be at least 100-150 mm. The top in such a burzhuyka will be heated so that on it you can cook food, heat water.
We have also more detailed instructions with schemes and drawings on the manufacture of a burzhuyka from a gas cylinder.
Properties of a burzhuyka on sawdust
If the economy is not lacking in sawdust, this type of fuel is well worth its use. Such a fireplace does not require frequent loading - tamped sawdust inside does not burn, they slowly smolder, releasing thermal energy gradually and providing heat for a long time.
We recommend you to see information on how to make sawdust briquettes with your own hands.
The sawdust fireplace made with your own hands works on the principle of long burning. The slow burning process saves resources - the heat is not released immediately into the chimney heating the atmosphere
The base of the oven can be a metal barrel with an open top (if the container is airtight, the top is cut off) or a pipe of 300 to 600 mm diameter.
From a three millimeters thick or more, a metal circle is cut out, which should be smaller than the barrel inner diameter. In the middle of it, a hole with a diameter of 100mm is cut for the sawdust tamping cone.
The workpiece is welded to the sides of the barrel. Use this circle to separate the ash-pan - in it, with shavings or chips, the ignition will be carried out. The ash-pan should be 100-200 mm high.
For the ash-pan not to let the smoke in, a sand trap is made between the lid and the outer cylinder
A window is cut under the circle welded. To the piece of metal cut out, the curtains are welded, making a door for the same opening.
In the lid of the tank, an outlet is made for the chimney. The lid must be tightly put on the firebox and be of thick enough sheet metal, otherwise it will burn quickly.
For the sawdust to burn gradually, a limited supply of oxygen to the fuel compartment must be provided. To do this, a cone-shaped core is inserted inside the firebox, sawdust is placed around it and tamped down. The cone is carefully removed by scrolling, the lid is put on the barrel
It is possible to improve the same model by adding an additional cylinder. In this version, the sawdust will be in the inner chamber, and the space between the two compartments will serve for afterburning the gases and increasing the heating area. In such a variant, the flue gas outlet is arranged in the lower part of the stove.
How can the burzhuyka be improved?
The usual burzhuyka has a lot of positive qualities, but also has many significant drawbacks. It is not able to accumulate heat and heats the room while the fire is burning. Requires a continuous feeding of fuel, on average - every 30-40 minutes.
In addition, a large amount of heat escapes through the chimney into the atmosphere, not beneficial.
The standard construction of the fire-brick stove has many improved designs that allow:
- to save fuel;
- to increase efficiency;
- to increase heat capacity;
- to decrease frequency of laying fuel.
The most common methods to increase the efficiency of the firebox are creation of slow burning regime, afterburning gas system, installation of heat resistant cladding on the inside walls.
Enhance the quality of the stove can also be improved by increasing the area of heat transfer by means of welded pipes and installed fan, which will drive air flows through them.
The industrial model of such a burzhuyka is called \"Bulerian\", but, besides it, there are many different designs, made by homemade way. We recommend to see a detailed master class on homemade stove \"Bulerian\".
Lengthen the time of heat emission by lining the stove with brick masonry. Such a stove will be slower to heat up, but it will give out heat longer, maintaining the temperature in the room for some time after the fire goes out.
Are you interested in brick masonry? Our website has a detailed guide to masonry with schemes and drawings.
Option #1 - stove with increased fuel load
This model is designed to increase the efficiency and uninterrupted combustion time. It is based on a horizontal rectangular grate on solid, stable legs and supplemented with a cassette of a blind hermetic cylinder. These additions greatly increase its efficiency.
A flange is welded to the cylinder-cassette with a height of about 400 mm. When the cylinder is installed in the burner hole, its edge must be 5-10 mm lower than the stove plate. To make the cylinder easy to install and remove, handles are welded to the body of the cylinder.
The cylinder is filled with wood so that some space is left between it and when inserted in the stove it may go down immediately on the burning coals
How the fire-bar works:
- The lower part of the wood, placed on the coals, ignites. The upper part, which is in the cassette, will not burn, because of lack of oxygen, but will be dried by the hot smoke.
- Under the weight of its own mass and as it burns, the wood gradually sinks into the firebox.
- The hot gas, being in the cylinder for some time, gives it heat, thereby increasing the heat transfer area in the room.
- At the same time the temperature of the escaping smoke is decreased and the heat capacity and the efficiency of the stove is increased.
This modernization increases the time interval between wood stoking and improves the efficiency of the stove.
Option #2 - Bubafonka - long term combustion chimney
The low efficiency of conventional chimney stoves has been known and tested by many users.
One of the ways to increase it is to delay the burning process by limiting the air in the combustion chamber. This improvement can be found in such stoves as \"Bubafonya\", \"Filippinka\".
Use this model of burzhuyka in non-residential premises - workshops, greenhouses, other outbuildings. To work for 9-12 hours is enough one deposit of small wood, wood chips, sawdust. In this model of the heater it is forbidden to use large chopped and raw wood.
Burzhuyka can be created from any metal reservoir. The most commonly used is a fuel and lubricant barrel or an old cylinder.
It is made in the following sequence:
- From the available cylindrical container a furnace chamber is prepared, in the upper part of which a hole is cut out for the chimney.
- From metal (at least 10 mm thick), a circle, slightly smaller than the inner diameter of the barrel is cut.
- In the center of the circle, a hole of 100-150 mm diameter is made (the exact size depends on the diameter of the rod pipe used).
- A ribs up to 50 mm high are welded to one plane of the circle.
- The tube is welded to the center of the circle. Its length is calculated so that the piston is approximately 100 mm above the tank lid when lowered. If the tube is left longer than necessary, there will be a draft in it and it will start to smoke.
- Further, construct a cover, which will be tightly put on the barrel and cut a hole in it suitable for the piston tube
Even more increase the efficiency of this model by arranging the air flow into the furnace from the street. In this way, the heated air from the room will not escape into the chimney.
The oven has a pyrolysis process: when the wood burns, it releases combustible gas, which rises above the piston and there it burns
Option #3 - stove with secondary \"Philippine\" afterburning
The oven has two ways of increasing its efficiency, based on the principles of long burning and pyrolysis. It requires two gas cylinders to serve as primary and secondary combustion chambers.
The sequence of operations for making the gas burner is as follows:
- The cylinders are prepared for operation by letting out the remaining gas and filling them with water. Without this procedure it is absolutely impossible to cut them, otherwise the sparks produced by the grinder could provoke an explosion of gas, some of which always remains in the cylinder.
- In the first cylinder, which will serve as a chamber for the firebox and ashtray, remove the tap and cut off the top (used to make the door), cut out a hole to fit the chimney.
- Opposite the hole for the chimney, a pipe is welded, the other end of which must not rest against the cover of the second chamber, leaving free space for the smoke to escape.
- At the pipe outlet of the first cylinder, a metal ring is welded, this will serve as a support to install the upper cylinder. Drill holes in it.
- For the second cylinder a metal ring is also welded at the cut-off point of the top, in which the points for the holes are marked with reference to those already made in the first ring.
- Before the second cylinder is finally installed, an air pipe is inserted into it.
- Put the upper chamber on the pipe, aligning the holes, wrap the heat-resistant tape between the rings, fix the connection with screws.
- The chimney outlet is made from the bottom of the secondary incinerator.
To obtain a stable construction, solid legs are welded to the lower chamber. The door is mounted on the canopies. It can be further improved by adding the possibility to regulate the air entering the firebox.
The upper chamber (secondary combustion chamber) may be installed horizontally, but then additional fixings must be considered to fix it securely
The first chamber of the firebox burns wood and releases combustible gas. The hot flue gases, entering the second chamber and mixing with the air, ignite and burn completely.
The draft is regulated by means of the ash-pan, which, once the wood is well-burnt, can be reduced to a minimum to reduce the gas speed and heat loss.
Conclusions and useful video on the subject
How to make the most of a Waste Engine Oil Burner:
Improved Gas Cylinder Burner Stove with Secondary Burner Chamber:
Design and rules for the use of a long-burning \"Bubafonja\" stove:
Making a homemade burzhuyka, precautions should not be forgotten. Its design should protect as much as possible against the spread of fire.
Disregard for fire safety rules can play a cruel joke on those who want to save money on buying an industrial model.
You use a homemade burzhuyka for more than the first year? Tell us about the scheme you used and the most difficult part of it
Maybe you have improved your fire-box in one of the ways described in the article? Share your experience and pictures of your self-made stove in the comments of this article - your successes will inspire other users to experiment.