Enjoyment of the countryside involves increasing the comfort of dacha residents. One of the invariable attributes of passive entertainment is TV.
Away from the city, there are often problems with the signal and broadcasting quality. The homemade antenna for dacha with your own hands allows you to solve this issue, spending a minimum of money and time. There are many variants of homemade devices, their choice is determined by the remoteness from the tower and the type of signal.
In this material we will consider the assembly of the simplest models of homemade - the article provides detailed instructions for manufacturing with diagrams and drawings. There is also a list of materials and tools needed for the work.
The contents of the article:
- Needs for making signal catchers
- Best antenna assembly instructions
- Samodel #1 - simple TV antenna
- Samodel #2 - loop antenna from pipe
- Samodel #3 - Harchenko signal catcher
- Samodel #4 - double square\"
- Homemade #5 - TV aerial from tin cans
- Conclusions and useful video on the subject
Nouches for making signal traps
When starting to make a home-made device it is necessary to have an idea of the possible designs and how to assemble them.
The whole variety of television antennas is commonly divided into several kinds:
- All-wave. The frequency-independent antenna is the cheapest, easiest to make. The base is a metal frame, and tin containers or beer cans are used as receivers. The design does not have high working parameters, but is quite suitable for country houses, if the broadcasting tower is located nearby.
- Logoperiodic. The principle of operation is comparable with a fishing net, which sorts out the prey when it is caught. The device is not difficult to make, and its parameters exceed the characteristics of all-wave models. The antennas have consistency with the feeder on all bands.
- Decimeter. Designs that function well regardless of reception conditions. Various forms of design are possible: zigzag, rhombus, circle, etc.
The antenna parts over which the useful signal currents travel are joined by welding or soldering. However, when the device is placed on the roof of the cottage, such contacts will eventually corrode.
One condition for sufficient purity and durability of reception is a minimum number of joints in the design of the signal catcher
Besides this rule, when making your own antenna for the cottage it is advisable to follow the following rules:
- Central cores, braid are made of inexpensive alloys resistant to corrosive processes. However, they are difficult to solder - work with great care not to burn the wire.
- A 40W soldering iron, flux paste, fusible solder should be used to connect the elements.
- Use aluminum wire to create structural parts is undesirable. The material oxidizes quickly and loses its ability to conduct signals. Copper is the best choice, brass is an available alternative.
The receiving area of the trap should be large. In order to increase it, metal bars can be symmetrically attached to the frame that cuts off the on-air noise.
Installing the simplest signal amplifier in the antenna will greatly improve the quality of the on-air transmission. The factory products are already equipped with this element
Tandem of homemade antenna and amplifier will provide the necessary reception power. It is sufficient to take the construction out on the roof and install it in the direction of a nearby TV tower.
Best antenna assembly instructions
Your own hands can assemble many interesting and effective antennas. Here are detailed instructions for the best and easiest models to build.
Homemade #1 - A simple TV Antenna
If the repeater is within 30 km of the house, the simplest construction, made of two tubes and cable, is sufficient. The wire is connected to the corresponding TV input socket.
Scheme and choice of materials
The typical construction of a primitive dacha antenna is shown in the figure below. It can be seen that two tubes of the same length are joined on a plate, which in turn is fixed to a mast.
Tube signal trap can be made in a couple of hours. The work does not require any qualification of the performer and expensive tools
The first thing to do is to find out the frequency of the local TV tower - the length of the pipes depends on this parameter.
The broadcast bandwidth is 50-230 MHz. Each channel requires a different length of antenna \"whiskers\".
The table shows the parameters of the signal catcher design based on the frequency of the broadcasts. The broadcasting band is divided into 12 channels
Tubes made of duralumin, steel, brass are suitable for making the antenna. Their diameter can vary from 8-24 mm, most often 16 mm. The main condition is that the sections must be equal, prepared from pipes with the same properties.
- metal pipe - a cut 6 cm shorter than the length determined from the table values;
- wire of resistance 75 Ohm, the required length is the distance from the TV to the antenna plus 2 m for sag and loop matching;
- thick electrical insulating gethinax - thickness from 4 mm;
- metal bands, clamps to fix the pipes to the plate;
- mast for antenna it may be a corner, for small heights a wooden bar is acceptable.
Stock a soldering iron, solder and flux for the work. It is recommended to solder the joints of the central conductors - this will extend the life of the device, improve image quality.
Fill the joints with silicone, epoxy resin to protect against oxidation. An accessible but unreliable method is to wrap with duct tape.
Assembly and adjustment of the invention
First the tube is cut to size and sawn into two equal parts. Use metal wire cutters.
The next step is to flatten the tubes on one side for easy attachment to the holder. Place the pieces on the Hetinax and mark the fixing points
The distance between the inner ends of the tubes is 6 cm and the distance between the farther ends as indicated in the table.
The following workflow:
- Hook the antenna whiskers to the holder with clamps and fix the hetinax plate itself to the mast.
- Connect the tubes through a matching device - cable loop type RK-1,3,4. The parameters of the element are shown in the right column of the table, the manufacturing principle in the antenna unit diagram.
- Solder the central cores to the ends of the tubes, braid a piece of similar conductor.
- Splice the central conductors of the ends of the matching loop to the TV cable. Connect the braid with copper wire.
- Fix the loop and the wire going down.
- Lift the mast to the roof of the summerhouse, tune the antenna.
Two people are needed to determine the optimum position of the device. The first rotates the antenna outdoors and the second person watches for changes in the picture on the TV.
For a quick setup, you can check with the neighbors which side of the house the receiver is located and where the vibrators are directed
Catching good signal quality, the construction is fixed in the chosen position.
Homemade #2 - loop antenna from a pipe
Module is a little more complicated to build, but extends the reception range to 40 km. The main difficulty is the need to bend the tube.
The bending radius does not matter much. The main requirements of the arrangement are: distance between the inner ends - 65-70 mm, flatness and symmetry of the wings
The cable and tube length is calculated from the frequency of the broadcasting channels.
Billets are made for the necessary parameter - measure and cut off the vibrator, the wire for the matching device. The recommended tube diameter is 12-18 mm.
Table values for matching the channel frequency and signal pickup parameters. For example, at 93.25 MHz on the air, the length of the tube should be 151 cm and the length of the matching cable should be 104 cm
Assembly begins by bending the tube. The edge of the vibrator is flattened and sealed. Fill the pipe with sand and seal the second end similar to the first. The edges can be plugged by sealing the plugs with silicone.
The shaped tube is attached to the mast. Screw and solder the matching loops to the ends of the vibrator and fix the TV cable. Fasten the braid with copper wire and tune up.
Harchenco signal catcher #3
The \"figure of eight\" or \"zigzag\" TV antenna is suitable for DVB-T2 digital television, broadcasting in the DMV range. The module is easy to make. The project will require conductive metal.
Calculation and drawing development
The construction of the TV antenna is very primitive - two squares/crombets attached to each other. In the original design, the Kharchenko module provides a reflector behind the shaped elements.
Field of metal strips is necessary for analog signals. Digital TV reception is possible without a reflector. The field can be made afterwards if the reception is poor
Wavelengths do not have to be calculated to make a zigzag antenna. It is desirable to construct a more broadband design to increase its capabilities.
If you wish, you can calculate the parameters of the device. Divide the value of the wavelength of the broadcast signal by 4, and the resulting value is the side of a square.
There should be a small distance between the two parts of the TV antenna. To maintain the gap, it is sufficient to make the outer sides longer and the inner sides shorter. The side lengths (B1 and B2) are as you wish
The example shown is a drawing of an aerial with sides B1 14cm, B2 13cm. A difference of one centimetre in length gives the necessary distance between the squares.
The lower sections are lengthened by 1cm. This gap is necessary for the loop to solder the antenna cable.
Frame fabrication and cable preparation
The following calculations will be given in relation to the data in the drawing shown above. The total perimeter of the squares is 112 cm. Cut the wire to the right length and form the piece according to the diagram.
- Bend the wire in the middle at right angles.
- There follow two sections of 14 cm, followed by sides of 13 cm. After each bend check the evenness of the corners, should be strictly 90 degrees.
- When the first square is formed, proceed to create the second figure. Again go the sided elements of 14 cm, and after them - two parts of 13 cm + 1 cm.
Significant differences in the lengths of the sides are acceptable. The main thing is to keep right angles.
If the construction is correctly shaped, then a distance of 1,5-2 cm should be obtained between the two parts of the TV antenna
The next step is to prepare the cable. It is stripped on both sides. Cut along the circumference of the cable, leaving 2-2,5 cm distance from the edge.
The work is done carefully so as not to damage the inner braid. The cable is slightly broken along the cut line and the insulation is removed.
The braid and foil must be twisted into a bundle. There should be two conductors: a central monocore and a twist. Both elements should be tinned. The wire should protrude 2 cm, cut off the excess
Solder the plug on the second side of the cable. The wire should be stripped 1 cm, form conductors and tin plated.
For the soldering points the plug should be sanded down with an emery cloth and wiped with alcohol. Solder a monocore to the center output and a twist to the side output. Grip around the insulation crimp, screw on a plastic tip, alternatively - fill conductive sealant. Before the composition dries, assemble the plug.
The order of connecting the elements
The final stage of assembly is the docking of the frame and cable. If there is no binding to a particular channel, it is better to splice at the midpoint to extend the signal capture.
The cut end of the cable is connected to the two sides of the square in the center. Before the final fixing it is possible to check the performance of the antenna. If all is normal, the solder joints are sealed.
The most reliable method is to seal with silicone or glue. For the case, a plastic lid from a 5-liter can is suitable
Holes are made in the mini container for the square elements, a frame with a wire is inserted and sealed with sealant.
Homemade #4 - the \"double square\"
This narrowband design allows the problem of a weak signal or a clogging by a stronger broadcast signal. The antenna is also suitable for digital TV reception. The main condition for operation is clear orientation to the signal distributor.
Device diagram and dimensions
The teleantenna is structurally represented as two frames connected at the top and bottom by arrows. The larger square is the reflector, the smaller is the vibrator.
A variation with three frames providing high signal gain is possible. The smallest square is the director
The top boom is made of metal, and the bottom boom of gethinax, textolite or other insulating material.
Television antenna arrangement requirements:
- The centers of the squares must be in line, this straight line looking toward the transmitter;
- the smaller frame has an open circuit, the ends being fixed to a textolite plate;
- the mast top under the antennas is made of wood.
The parameters for making two-element frame antennas are taken from the table. The dimensions of the working elements depend on the type of waves: decimeter or meter.
Explanation of the table: B - side length of smaller square, P - value of larger frame, A - distance between two elements, W - loop in short-circuit bridge
In a three-frame construction, the distance between the ends of the middle frame is increased to 5 cm.
Assembly and wiring
A symmetrical short-circuit loop will be required to connect the frame to the antenna cable. The device is constructed from sections of antenna wire.
The right element is the loop, the shortened left is the feeder. A television cable is attached to the junction. The lengths of the segments are determined from the table, taking into account the wavelength of the signal.
The elements are cleaned before being assembled. The aluminum layer is removed from the loop and the braid is twisted into a bundle. Cut off the middle conductor
Feeder is treated in the same way leaving the cable core.
Further sequence of operations:
- Solder the middle conductor of the cable to the left end of the transducer, loop braiding.
- Feeder braiding is attached to the right end of the active frame.
- The bottom of the cable is connected to the cable braiding by a metal jumper. Solder the bundles with fusible solder.
- Cable strips must run parallel, distance 5 cm. Dielectric material is used to fix the distance. The terminator is mounted on a textolite plate.
- The TV cable is soldered to the bottom of the feeder by matching the respective elements - braid to braid, rod to rod.
The use of a terminator reduces interference and avoids the double image effect. It is indispensable when you are far away from the transmitter.
Homemade #5 - TV antenna from tin cans
Original design of the antenna from improvised means noticeably improves the signal quality. Such a variant will be suitable for a country house in the suburbs, not far from the TV tower.
To create a primitive device you will need: 2 0,5 or 0,75 l beer cans, self-tapping screws, 3-5 m TV cable, screwdriver, soldering iron, tin, wooden pin or shoulders, duct tape.
The following steps can be divided into several stages.
Preparing cable and bringing contacts
In preparing cable, clean insulation, 10 cm step aside. Separate the cable into two conductors - a central core and a braided twist. A standard plug must be installed on the second end of the cable.
When making the contact connection, the twisted shield of the cable is fixed to one can, the copper core to the other. Self-tapping screws are suitable for fixing.
For a better picture it is better to reinforce the fixings by soldering. The joints have to be sealed
Assembly of the self-made construction
When assembling the signal receiver the supporting construction has to be made. The easiest way to do it is to use the usual coat hangers. A wooden stick is also suitable.
The tubes are fixed to the mast with scotch tape or duct tape, the construction is lifted to the roof and the tuning begins, selecting the best location for the improvised antenna.
We should use containers with a smooth surface, ribbed materials are not suitable. The cans are pre-washed and dried
Conclusions and useful video on the subject
Step-by-step instructions for making a TV antenna from aluminum cans:
Calculation, assembly of a digital broadcasting antenna by Kharchenko:
The self-made construction will save the budget, because a primitive signal trap can be constructed from the available means. The construction work does not take much time.
When a number of standards, assembly and connection techniques are followed, it is possible to make an effective device to replace the regular TV antenna.
You have a homemade antenna in your country? Please share with other users the unique photo of your do-it-yourself aerial, tell us what materials you need and how much time it took you to build it.
And maybe you have built your aerial with one of the schemes we discussed in this material? Tell us about your experiences with this model, add photos in the comments block.